Kathy Lynn Emerson
to update and correct
her very out-of-date
Wives and Daughters: The Women of Sixteenth-Century England (1984)
NOTE: this document exists only in electronic format
and is ©2008-15 Kathy Lynn Emerson (all rights reserved)
(1506-September 20, 1558)
Cecily Dabridgecourt was the daughter of John Dabridgecourt or Daubridgecourt of Langdon Hall and Solihull, Warwickshire (1483-July 16, 1543) and his first wife Maria Mynors (1485-1512). She was one of Princess Mary's attendants in Wales in 1525, before her marriage to Sir Rhys/Rice Mansell of Oxwich, Glamorganshire (January 25, 1487-April 10, 1559). She was his third wife and they married on June 19, 1527. Their children were Edward (c.1527-August 5, 1595), Philip (1531-before 1559), Anthony (1535-1601+), Mary (1536-1564), Katherine, Elizabeth (d.1549+), and three sons who died young. In a letter to Lord Cromwell, Princess Mary refers to Cecily as "one of my gentlewomen, whom, for her long and acceptable service to me done, I much esteem and favor." On August 3, 1535, Cecily herself wrote to Cromwell, begging him to intercede with the king so that her husband, who was serving in Ireland, might return to England where, she writes, "Most of his living is encumbered with jointures and other charges, so that if God should take him, I, with my poor children, were clearly undone; for in these parts I am a stranger." She was writing from Beaupré and signed herself "Cecil Maunsell." In 1540, Margam Abbey became the family seat. They also had a town house in Clerkenwell. When Mary became queen, Cecily was a Lady of the Privy Chamber as "Lady Manxwell" and her daughter Mary was a maid of honor. Cecily was buried in St. Bartholomew-the-Great, Smithfield. Portraits: effigy in Margam Abbey, Glamorganshire with three children.
Christian or Christiana Dabridgecourt was the daughter of John Dabridgecourt of Langdon Hall, Warwickshire (1483-July 16, 1543) and his second wife Elizabeth Wigston (d.1543+). She married Anthony Forster of Newark-upon-Trent, Nottinghamshire (d. March 1559) as his second wife. His will, dated February 23, 1558, left her lands in Nottinghamshire, £200, and specified valuables, as well as the lease of St. Leonard's hospital, Newark, for as long as she chose to live there. He also made provision that his two daughters by his first wife and his daughter with Christian be raised by her and married at eighteen or earlier, and gave instructions for a tomb to be erected to himself and his first wife in the church of Mary Magdalene, Newark. By 1562, Christian married Sir Robert Constable (c.1522-November 12, 1591), a soldier. Their son Henry (1562-October 9, 1613) was a poet and religious exile.
see ANNE BOURCHIER
Anne Dacre was the daughter of Thomas Dacre, 2nd baron Dacre of the North (November 25, 1467-October 24, 1525) and Elizabeth Greystoke (July 10, 1471-August 14, 1516). On September 28, 1515, she married Christopher Conyers, 2nd baron Conyers of Hornby (c.1491-June 14, 1538). On February 2, 1539, her brother, William, 3rd baron Dacre, wrote to Lord Cromwell to ask him to befriend Anne, who needed his aid for herself and her young children. Lady Conyers herself then wrote to Lord Cromwell from Skelton Castle on July 10, 1539. Her eldest son John (1524-June 30, 1557) was still a minor and so had become a ward of the Crown, but he was already betrothed to Maud Clifford, daughter of the earl of Cumberland. Although her husband had tried to make arrangements for the rest of his family before his death, he had left behind enormous debts and she was faced with raising Elizabeth, Jane (c.1522-December 4, 1558), and Leonard (c.1529-1577) and arranging marriages for them without any income. She asked Cromwell for her dower rights and begged to be allowed to stay where she was and "be your farmer of my said son's lands." In a second letter, written on October 17, 1539, she restates her case, telling Lord Cromwell that since her husband died she has had "nothing to live upon, but as we have borrowed amongst our poor friends, and daily sundry of the creditors of my said lord my husband calls upon me for such debts as he was indebted unto them; the which I shall never be able to pay, unless I may be therein relieved and holpen by the profits of such of my said husband’s lands as he devised and assigned to that purpose, and for the preferment of his children." She asks again for her "dower and living" but when or if she received them is not recorded. Anne wrote her will on December 16, 1547 and it was proved on April 1, 1548. She asked to be buried with her husband in the Church of All Saints in Skelton and, among other bequests, left her daughter Jane all her clothes except one gown of tawny velvet with one kirtle of tawny damask, which she left to her other daughter.
ANNE DACRE (March 1,1557-April 13,1630)
Anne Dacre was the oldest daughter of Thomas, 4th baron Dacre (c.1526-July 25,1566) and Elizabeth Leyburne (d.September 4,1567). Her mother remarried on January 29, 1567. After the death of her only brother, George, 5th baron, at Thetford, Norfolk on May 17, 1569 in a fall from a wooden vaulting horse, she and her sisters became considerable heiresses. They were brought up by their stepfather, Thomas, 4th duke of Norfolk and by their grandmother, Helen Preston, dowager Lady Mounteagle. In September 1571, when Anne was fourteen, she was married to her stepbrother, Philip Howard (June 28, 1557-November 19,1595). He should have succeeded his father to the dukedom, but Thomas Howard was executed for treason in 1572 and the title was forfeit. Norfolk requested that “Meggy and Nan”—his daughter, Margaret Howard, and Anne—be given into the care of the Frances Sidney, countess of Sussex. Philip Howard was taken into the household of William Cecil, Lord Burghley, then attended St. John’s College, Cambridge, and then went to court. While he lived at Howard House in Charterhouse Square, Anne lived with his maternal grandfather, the earl of Arundel. She was chief mourner at the funeral of his daughter, Lady Lumley, in 1578, and depicted as such, styled countess of Surrey, in a contemporary manuscript. In 1581, Philip succeeded to his maternal grandfather’s title as earl of Arundel and shortly thereafter he and Anne began to live together, part of the time at Arundel Castle. When Anne openly converted to Catholicism, which was against the law, the queen committed her to the custody of Sir Thomas Sherley at Wiston House. There she gave birth to her first child, Elizabeth (1583-1598). She was successful in convincing her husband to convert to Catholicism as well, a step he took on September 30, 1584. As a result, he was made a prisoner in his own house by order of the queen. He was released in April 1584 and Anne was allowed to leave Wiston in September. In April 1585, however, Philip made secret plans to flee the country. Contrary winds delayed his escape and when he finally set sail, his ship was boarded and he was returned to shore. He was confined in the Beauchamp Tower, charged with trying to escape the realm. His brother William and sister Margaret and his uncle, Henry Howard, were also arrested. Shortly after he was imprisoned, Anne gave birth to their son and heir, Thomas (1586-1646). Anne and her two children were reduced to living in one wing of Arundel House on a pension of £8 a week. Anne managed, however, to scrape together £30 to bribe Cecily Hopton, one of the daughters of the Lord Lieutenant, to provide her husband with access to a priest, William Bennett, who was also imprisoned in the Tower of London. Bennett secretly said mass in Philip’s cell until, in the autumn of 1588, they were discovered and Bennett was transferred to another prison. Philip was soon after charged with treason because the mass was for the success of the Armada, and as a result spent the rest of his life in the Tower. Anne remained free and continued to practice her faith. From 1589 until 1595, Robert Southwell secretly lived in Anne’s household as her priest. Under James I, Anne regained possession of some of her properties, including Shifnal Manor, Shropshire, where she died. She spent her last years writing a memoir with the help of a live-in biographer. He finished it five years after her death. The Life of the Right Honorable Lady Anne Countesse of Arundell and Surrey was edited by the Duke of Norfolk in 1837. She also wrote at least one poem, in 1595, on the death of her husband. Written on the cover of a letter, it begins: "In sad and ashy weeds I sigh,/I groan, I pine, I mourn;/My oaten yellow reeds/I all to jet and ebon turn./My wat'ry eyes, like winter's skies,/My furrowed cheeks o'erflow./ All heavens know why men mourn as I,/And who can blame my woe." Biography: Oxford DNB entry under "Howard [née Dacre], Anne." Portraits: a stained glass window in Arundel Cathedral, West Sussex; drawing by Lucas Vorsterman, 1626, in the British Museum; engraving by Wenceslaus Hollar, 1627; portrait sent to Philip II of Spain (no longer extant). She was described in life as being "taller of stature than the common sort" and "somewhat corpulant" in her last years.
ELIZABETH DACRE (1565-1639)
Elizabeth Dacre was one of the three daughters of Thomas, 4th baron Dacre (d. July 25, 1566) and Elizabeth Leyburne (d. September 4, 1567). Upon her mother’s remarriage to the 4th duke of Norfolk, she was betrothed to the duke’s younger son, Lord William Howard (1563-1640). They married in 1577. They lived primarily at Naworth Castle and had little to do with the court. Their children were Philip (b.1581), William, Charles, Thomas, Mary, Elizabeth (March 1, 1587-1637), Francis (1588-1660), John, Robert, Anne, and Margaret (December 19, 1593-March 3, 1620/21). Portrait: a portrait called “Lady Elizabeth Dacre, 1577” was at Gilling Castle in 1878 and was said to resemble one at Naworth called Queen Elizabeth, except that it showed the sitter with a candle and crucifix.
see ELIZABETH GREYSTOKE; ELIZABETH LEYBURNE; ELIZABETH TALBOT
see JANE CARLISLE
JOAN DACRE (c.1433-March 8, 1486)
Joan Dacre was the daughter of Sir Thomas Dacre of Gilsland, Northumberland (1410-1448) and Elizabeth Bowett. In June 1446, she married Sir Richard Fiennes (c.1415-November 25, 1483). When her grandfather, Thomas, 6th baron Dacre, died on January 5, 1457/8, she became suo jure 7th baroness Dacre and her husband was styled baron Dacre in the right of his wife. There was, however, a dispute over the title with her uncles. It was finally settled in 1473 by Edward IV who awarded the barony of Dacre to Richard and Joan and created her uncle Humphrey baron Dacre of Gilsland. In about March 1477, Joan was appointed nurse/lady mistress to George, newborn son of King Edward. At that time, her husband was chamberlain to the queen. When George died at Windsor Castle in March 1479, Joan became lady mistress to Princess Mary. Mary died at fifteen, on May 23, 1482 at Greenwich. Joan attended a service there and dinner at the palace afterward before the body was taken to Windsor for burial. Her own children were John (c.1449-1483), father of the 8th baron Dacre, Elizabeth, Richard (c.1453-1455), and William (c.1455-1457). Joan died at Herstmonceux Castle in Sussex.
see MABEL PARR
MABEL DACRE (c.1490-c.1533)
Mabel, sometimes called Margaret, Dacre was the daughter of Thomas, 2nd baron Dacre of Gillesland (November 25, 1467-October 24, 1525) and Elizabeth Greystoke (July 10, 1471-August 14, 1516). In about 1520, she married Henry, 7th baron Scrope of Bolton (c.1480-December 1532). Their children were John, 8th baron (c.1510-June 22, 1549), Anne, Joan, Elizabeth, and Anne. Mabel was at court as one of Catherine of Aragon’s ladies at the beginning of the reign of Henry VIII. Neville Williams, in Henry VIII and His Court, calls her the “sickly Lady Scrope.”
MAGDALEN DACRE (1538-April 8, 1608)
Magdalen Dacre was the daughter of William Dacre, 3rd baron Dacre of Gilsland (April 29,1500-November 18,1563) and Elizabeth Talbot (d.1559) and born at Naworth Castle, Cumberland. At thirteen, she was a gentlewoman to Anne Sapcote, countess of Bedford and at sixteen joined Queen Mary’s household. She was one of Mary’s bridesmaids when she married Philip II of Spain. Magdalen was reportedly very religious, spending much of her time in prayer and wearing a coarse linen smock under her court clothes. According to a story repeated in E. S. Turner’s The Court of St. James and elsewhere, she was a blonde, a head taller than any other maid of honor, and very attractive, and she caught the attention of Queen Mary’s husband, Philip of Spain. The story goes that Philip opened a window to a room where Magdalen was washing her face (or in some versions, brushing her hair) and, supposedly in jest, caught hold of her. Magdalen beat him off with a nearby staff and neither she nor her mistress found the incident amusing. On July 15, 1558, Magdalen was married at St. James’s palace to Anthony Browne, Viscount Montagu (November 29, 1528-October 19,1592). Magdalen raised two stepchildren and had ten children of her own: Philip (b.1559), Henry (c.1562-1628), George, Anthony, Jane, Mary, Elizabeth, Mabel, Thomas, and William. Magdalen and her husband were recusants during the reign of Elizabeth and her husband was questioned when Magdalen’s brother, Leonard, took part in the Northern Rebellion of 1569, but in general they were left alone by the government, even though they had resident chaplains who celebrated mass for as many as 120 people on special occasions. Magdalen was only once accused of recusancy, her house was searched only twice, and only once was one of her priests taken and imprisoned. She was willing to allow a printing press on her premises, but would not aid treasonous plots, not even those of another brother, Francis. Her chaplain at Cowdray was Thomas More, grandson of the martyr. When Queen Elizabeth visited Cowdray for a week in 1591, the priests were hidden and George Browne was knighted. Magdalen lived at Battle Abbey after her husband's death. At some point between 1592 and 1595, William, Lord Cobham proposed marriage. She turned him down. In 1597, when a messenger brought a letter there to be passed on to the earl of Essex, Magdalen turned the messenger over to the magistrate and also reported the incident to Lord Buckhurst, a privy councilor, sending her niece along as a witness. At the same time, a house at the edge of Battle manor contained a subterranean passage by which priests were smuggled into England. Magdalen died at Battle, Sussex and was buried in Midhurst Church with her husband. They were later moved to Eastbourne. She left a will proved April 24, 1608. Biography: written in Latin by Richard Smith, Bishop of Chalcedon (1627); A.C. Southern, ed. An Elizabethan Recusant House: the Life of the Lady Magdalen, Viscountess Montague; Roger B. Manning, Religion and Society in Elizabethan Sussex; Oxford DNB entry under "Browne [née Dacre], Magdalen." Portrait: alabaster tomb in Eastbourne Church with figures of Sir Anthony Browne and both of his wives.
MARY DACRE (c.1536-April 12,1611+)
Mary Dacre was born in Gilsland, Cumberland, the fourth daughter of William, Lord Dacre of the North (April 29, 1500-November 18, 1563) and Elizabeth Talbot (d.1559). She married Alexander Culpeper (c.1535-January 19, 1599) on October 21, 1558 and was the mother of Anthony Culpeper (d.1618). Portrait: effigy on Culpeper tomb (carved 1599 and erected 1608) in Goudhurst Church, Kent.
MARY DACRE (July 4, 1563-April 7, 1578)
Mary Dacre was the daughter of Thomas Dacre, 4th baron Dacre of Gillisland (c.1526-July 25, 1566) and Elizabeth Leyburne (d. September 4, 1567). During her mother's short remarriage to the duke of Norfolk, Mary was betrothed to one of the duke's sons, Thomas Howard, later earl of Suffolk (1561-1626), and married him by May 9, 1577. Charlotte Merton, in The Women who served Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth, advances the theory that Mary Dacre was the "Ladie M. Howarde" Sir John Harington referred to, in 1606, when he related the following story in a letter to Robert Markham. A lady at court appeared in "a rich border powdered wyth golde and pearle, and a velvet suite belonging thereto." The queen, annoyed that "it exeeded her own" clothing, got hold of the outfit and put it on. The "kirtle and border was far too shorte for her Majesties height; and she askede every one, How they likede her new-fancied suit? At lengthe she asked the owner herself, If it was not made too short and ill-becoming? Which the poor Ladie did presentlie consente to. Why then if it became not me, as being too short, I am minded it shall never become thee, as being too fine; so it fitteth neither well. This sharp rebuke abashed the Ladie, and she never adorned her herewith any more. I believe the vestment was laid up till after the Queenes death." Attempts to identify M. Howarde, usually connect the story to one of the Mary Howards who were maids of honor to Elizabeth during her long reign (see MARY HOWARD), but Merton argues that since Harington says he was "a boye" at the time of the incident, it could logically have taken place in about 1577, when Mary Dacre, Lady Thomas Howard, might have been expected to appear at court for the first time. Merton suggests inexperience as the reason Mary might have dressed in clothing both above her station and likely to infuriate the queen. Although Mary had been raised in the household of the duke of Norfolk from about age three until about age nine, he was executed for treason in 1572, after which it might not have been considered essential to educate her in the ways of the royal court. Mary died at Saffron Walden before her fifteenth birthday. She had no children.
ANNE DACRES (d. August 1563)
Anne Dacres was the daughter of Henry Dacres or Dakers of London and Mayfield, Stafforshire (c.1458-c.1538), merchant taylor and sheriff of London in 1528, and his wife Elizabeth (d. April 26, 1530). His will was written January 15, 1537 and proved June 14, 1539. He was buried in St. Dunstan's in the West. Anne married first Robert Fairethwatt or Fairethwaite of London (d.1521), another merchant taylor, by whom she had Martin, Geoffrey, and Elizabeth. After his death, she married Sir John Packington of London and Hampton Lovett, Worcestershire (d. August 21, 1551), by whom she apparently had Bridget, Ursula (d.1558), and a son who died young. Sir John wrote his will on August 16, 1551 and it was proved October 30, 1551. To "Anne, my loving wife" he left the lease on the parsonage of Chaddersley Corbet, rents from the farm of Harbington, half of all corn, malt, and grains, half his household stuff, half his horses, geldings, mares and cattles, £200, half of all his plate, and his great chain of gold. He also left bequests to her children, Martin Fairthwaite and Elizabeth Tichborne (she was married by then to Nicholas Tichborne of Roydon, Essex). For this reason, some genealogies mistakenly give Anne an additional husband named Tychbourne. Anne made her will on November 24, 1559. It included several endowments: lands to the value of £16 16s. 9d./year to the Clothworker's Company to distribute to the poor of St. Dunstan's parish and pay for sermons; enough to fund £7 13s. 4d./year for the care of the poor in St. Botolph's parish and £3/year for the education of poor children. Lands belonging to her in Islington went to build almshouses near White Friars church in Fleet Street. Augustus J. C. Hare in Walks in London Vol. I (1878) says she is "often supposed to have written 'The Whole Duty of Man'" but I have not found a source for this. Anne’s small monument in St. Botolph's Aldersgate (Dame Anne Packington) is the oldest monument in the church. Why it shows only three figures is unclear. She was buried there on August 22, 1563. Anne's will can be found at http://www.oxford-shakespeare.com. It is dated April 26, 1563 and was proved March 10, 1564.
MARGARET DACRES (1563-1631)
Margaret Dacres was the daughter of George Dacres of Cheshunt, Hertfordshire (c.1533-September 30, 1580) and Elizabeth Carew (1538-March 1579). In his will, he left his daughter £500. Margaret married George Garrard of Dorney Court, Buckinghamshire (1559-1591) on September 17, 1585 and had by him two daughters, Anne (1585/6-April 18, 1627) and Frances. In about 1592, she remarried, taking as her husband Henry Savile of Merton College, Oxford (November 30, 1549-February 19, 1622). Although he did not live full time at Merton, when he was there he flouted the rule against having his wife with him. They had two children, Henry (d.1604) and Elizabeth (c.1595-1651+). In 1595, the family moved from Oxford to Eton, where Savile was provost. He was knighted in 1604, by which time he was engaged in translating what became the King James Bible. Sir Henry Savile was buried in the Eton College Chapel, where there is a simple stone in his memory, but Margaret erected another monument to him in the Merton College Chapel at Oxford and he also appears on her monument in St. Nicholas Hurst, Berkshire.
MARGARET DAKINS (February 1571-September 1633)
Margaret Dakins was the daughter of Arthur Dakins of Linton, Yorkshire (c.1517-July 13, 1592) and Thomasine Gye (d. November 13, 1613), but she was brought up in the Puritan household of the earl of Huntingdon. Her first husband was another of Huntingdon’s charges, Walter Devereux (1569-September 8, 1591), but he was killed in battle in France early in their marriage. By November 1591, even before Walter’s body had been returned to England for burial, she was being courted by two men. She married one, Thomas Sidney (1569-July 26,1595) on December 22, 1591 and, after his death, reluctantly agreed to wed the other, Thomas Posthumous Hoby (1566-December 30, 1640). She married Hoby at his mother’s house in Blackfriars on August 9,1596. They lived at Hackness, Yorkshire, which Hoby’s powerful relations, the Cecils, had secured for her. It had been purchased at the time of her first marriage as a home for the young couple, but there were difficulties over the financing and the new earl of Huntingdon was claiming the property belonged to him. Margaret kept a diary of her religious observances and recorded some of the cures she used to treat her retainers. The diary covers the period from August 9, 1599 to July 21, 1605. Margaret’s piety was highly respected, but the same characteristics in her husband provoked an incident on August 27,1600 which ended in the courts. A band of hunters, dissatisfied with the way the Hobys kept open house, vandalized Hackness. The case was finally decided in Hoby’s favor by the Privy Council in 1602, but his refusal to unlock his wine cellar was regarded as just as rude as breaking four quarrels of glass and roistering while the Hobys were at prayers. Margaret was buried at Hackness on September 6,1633. Her husband erected an alabaster monument to her there. The value of her estate has been estimated at £1500. Biography: Dorothy M. Meads, ed., The Diary of Lady Margaret Hoby, 1599-1605 (1930); Joanna Moody, ed., The Private Life of an Elizabethan Lady: The Diary of Lady Margaret Hoby, 1599-1605 (1998); Oxford DNB entry under "Hoby [née Dakins], Margaret."
DOROTHY DALE (1560-1618)
Dorothy Dale was the daughter and heir of Valentine Dale (c.1520-November 17, 1589) and Elizabeth Sherer (d. October 1590), who was the widow of one Forth when she married Dale. In around 1580, Dorothy married Sir John North (1551-June 5, 1597). Their children were Dudley, 3rd Baron North (1582-1666), Elizabeth (c.1583-c.1616), Roger (1588-1652/3), Sir John, Gilbert, and Mary. She erected a monument to her husband in St. Gregory by Paul's, London. Portrait: c.1605, attributed to John de Critz.
MARY DALE (d. November 1601)
Mary Dale was the daughter of William Dale, a Bristol merchant. She married three times, but the name of her first husband is unknown. Her second husband was Thomas Avery (d. 1576), to whom she was married by 1554. In 1578, she wed Sir Thomas Ramsey (1510/11-1590), who was lord mayor of London that year and one of the richest men in London. His house in Lombard Street was one of the finest in the city. He was buried in St. Mary Woolnoth, where there is a memorial to him and his first wife. By the time of her death, Mary owned her own coach. Since there were no children from Ramsay’s first marriage and Mary had no children from any of hers, she was very active in charitable works. She left £1000 to her native city, Bristol, and was a benefactress of Christ's Hospital in London. The total value of charities established by both husband and wife from 1583 until Mary’s death is reckoned at £14,318. After Mary’s death, she was twice honored in print. The first was Nicholas Bourne’s 1602 An Epitaph upon the Decease of the Worshipful Lady Ramsay and in 1606 she was presented as what the Oxford DNB calls “the model of virtuous civic womanhood” in Thomas Heywood’s play If You Know Not Me You Know Nobody, Part II. Biography: Oxford DNB entry under “Ramsey [née Dale; other married name Avery], Mary.” Portraits: oil painting at Christ’s Hospital; line engraving.
see MARY SOMERSET
see ELIZABETH PENNINGTON
KATHERINE DALLAM (1516-1563)
Katherine Dallam was the daughter of Thomas Dallam (d.1497+), a skinner. Her first husband was Richard Collyer or Collier (d.1533), a wealthy adventurer and mercer born in Horsham, Sussex. They had two children, George and Dorothy, and lived in The Key, a property located on the south side of Cheapside, almost opposite Mercers' Hall in the parish of St. Pancras, Soper Lane. Collyer purchased this property in 1520 for £100. By 1532, he also owned another house in Cheapside and property in Kent, Surrey, and Sussex. After his death and before November 1535, Katherine married Robert Packington or Pakington (1496-November 13, 1536), another mercer. Packington was an evangelical and during the 1530s was secretly smuggling English-language Bibles into England. This may have led to his death. At 4 AM on Monday, November 13, 1536, Packington, who was probably living at The Key, was on his way to mass at the Mercer's Chapel of St. Thomas of Acre Church. Near the end of Soper Lane, about to cross Cheapside, he was shot dead by an assailant who was never identified. Both the fact that he’d been shot by a hand gun, when guns were still somewhat rare, and the failure of authorities to make any arrest led to all manner of speculation. The best guess is that he was killed because of his smuggling activities. The Oxford DNB gives Packington two sons and a daughter by his first wife. Anne F. Sutton, in The Mercery of London confuses Katherine with this first wife, Agnes Baldwin. Another source says Packington and Katherine's children were Thomas (d. June 2, 1571), John, Elizabeth, Anne, and Margaret, but some of those may belong to Agnes. What is clear is that, on August 21, 1539, Katherine married for a third time. Her new husband was Michael Dormer (d.1545), yet another mercer. He is said to have been wealthier than either of her previous husbands. They appear to have remained at The Key, but by 1540, both George and Dorothy Collyer had died. Under the terms of Collyer's will, the property was supposed to be sold to provide an endowment to establish a school at Horsham. An agreement was worked out whereby Katherine and her husband stayed on at The Key as company tenants and, in August 1540, Dormer paid £8 6s 8d for a house and garden near Horsham for the school, which opened in 1541 and remained in operation until 1893. Michael Dormer was Lord Mayor of London in 1541-2. Katherine does not seem to have had any children by this third marriage. Dormer, however, had five sons and a daughter by his first wife. Upon his death, Katherine inherited his dwellings in St. Laurence Jewry and at Kimble, Buckinghamshire for life. According to his will, proved October 2, 1545, she was "to take her pastime therein, to make merry with my friends and hers." Dormer also left several sets of instructions for her. She was to pay 53s 4d to the Mercers to support a morrow mass priest during the lifetime of Ambrose Barker, grocer. After his death, the reversion of certain lands were to pass to the Mercers to support the same priest. She was also to give the Mercers £6 13s 4d each year for a dinner "to be kept at their pleasure." "Lady Dormer of London" was also remembered in the will of Denise Leveson (née Bodley) where she and other friends were left "a ring of the value of 30s." Katherine's will, written May 24, 1562 and proved January 26, 1563, can be found at www.oxford-shakespeare.com (TNA PROB 11/46/47).
see ANNE SNAGGE
see SYLVESTRA DEANE
CATHERINE DAMMARTIN (d. February 15, 1553)
Catherine Dammartin was a former nun from Metz when she married Pietre Martiri Vermigli of Florence (September 8, 1499-November 12, 1562) in Strasbourg in 1545. Known as Peter Martyr, her husband was a radical religious reformer. They traveled to England where, in January 1551, he was appointed first canon of Christ Church, Oxford. Catherine thus became the first woman resident in an Oxford college. The Oxford DNB entry for Richard Cox, later bishop of Ely, gives this distinction to Cox's first wife, who resided at Christ Church and was "joined by Mrs. Vermigli." When the windows of their rooms were repeatedly smashed by protestors, the Vermiglis moved their lodgings into the cloisters. A contemporary, George Abbot, described Catherine as "reasonably corpulent, but of most matronlike modesty" and skilled at cutting "plumstones into curious faces." When Catherine died, she became the first clerical wife buried in an English cathedral. She was interred in Christ Church Cathedral near the former shrine to St. Frideswide. Only a few months later, however, Mary Tudor became queen and Peter Martyr fled from England with other Marian exiles. It is difficult to separate the truth of what happened next from later Protestant propaganda, but it appears that sometime in 1557, Catherine was tried posthumously for heresy. The case could not be made, partly because she does not appear to have spoken English and those who had met her could not understand German. The intention, had she been convicted, was to burn her remains. This was not done, but her bones were exhumed, some say on orders from Cardinal Pole himself, and Richard Martial/Marshall, dean of Christ Church, was ordered to dispose of them. The story goes that the bones were flung on a dungheap in the stable. In 1558, when Elizabeth Tudor became queen, these bones were somehow identified and at some point were reinterred in the cathedral. The story reported in a 1562 publication and repeated by John Foxe in his Book of Martyrs was that her bones were deliberately mixed with those of St. Frideswide so that neither would ever be dishonored again.
ANNE DANBY (1534-1571+ )
Anne Danby was the daughter of Sir Christopher Danby of Farnley, Yorkshire (October 1, 1503-June 14, 1571) and Elizabeth Neville (April 28-1500-1571+). In about 1570, she married Walter Calverley of Calverley and Pudsey, Yorkshire. They had three sons, including William (d.1572), a writer (see his entry in the Oxford DNB). Portrait: at age 37 in 1571.
see ELIZABETH WENTWORTH
see FRANCES PARKER
see MARGARET KEMPE
ANNE DANET, DANNET,
DANNATT or DANNETT
see ANNE BROWNE; ANNE ELMBRIDGE
DANNET, DANNATT or DANNETT
see ELIZABETH LENTON
ELIZABETH DANET, DANNET, DANNATT or DANNETT (d.1564)
Elizabeth Danet was the daughter of Gerard or Gerald Danet of Danet's Hall, Bromkinsthorpe, Leicestershire (c.1466-May 3, 1520)and his second wife, Mary Belknap (1472-c.1558). I question the date of birth given in "Early Dannett Pedigree" online, as August 10, 1507 would make her only ten when she participated in revels at court in 1517. She was one of Queen Catherine of Aragon's "women" by March 1521, when she received a "reward" from the king of £20. Elizabeths younger sister, Mary Danet, was also at court. Elizabeth Danet's marriage contract with Sir John Arundell of Lanherne (c.1500-November 7, 1557) bears the date July 10, 1525. She was his second wife. They had twelve children, including John (c.1530-November 17, 1590), Cecily (c.1526-c.1578), Thomas, Marie, George, Elizabeth, and Edward (d.1586). Arundell was in prison from 1549 until June 1552. After his death, his widow was granted the administration of his possessions, including his library. Elizabeth was buried in St. Mawgan's church, where there is a memorial brass. She left a ring worth 20s. to her sister, Mary Medley, which calls into questions the date of death given for Mary (below).
MARY DANET, DANNET,
DANNATT or DANNETT
see MARY BELKNAP
MARY DANET, DANNET,
DANNATT or DANNETT (d. before
Mary Dannett was the daughter of Gerard or Gerald Danet of Danet's Hall, Bromkinsthorpe, Leicestershire (c.1466-May 3, 1520) and his second wife, Mary Belknap (1472-c.1558). She is recorded as being in the household of Mary Tudor (later Queen Mary) in 1526. Mary Danet married George Medley (d.1562), half brother of Lady Jane Grey's father. They lived at Tilty, Essex and had three sons and two daughters, including Elizabeth (d.1603). Portrait: brass in St. Mary the Virgin, Tilty, Essex
MARY DANIEL (d. October 7, 1598)
Mary Daniel or Danyell was the mistress of Sir Edward Darrell of Littlecote, Wiltshire (1520-1549) at the time of his death. Although he had a legitimate heir, William (June 23, 1539-October 1, 1589), Darrell left Littlecote House and other property (he owned twenty-five manors ) in trust for Mary and she served as administrator of his estate. Mary styled herself Lady Darrell. On her memorial brass, she claimed that Sir Edward was her first husband and that they had a daughter, Eleanor Darrell. Although some online sources say Mary was also the mother of Darrell's illegitimate son Thomas, his name is not listed with her other children. According to the rest of the inscription, Mary's second husband was Philip Maunsell or Mansel (1531-before 1559), by whom she had a son, Rice (Rhys) Maunsell, and her third husband, married c. 1560, was Henry Fortescue of Faulkbourne, Essex (1514-1576). She was his second wife. They had one son, Dudley Fortescue. From 1561, as Mary Fortescue, Mary was harassed by lawsuits brought by William Darrell as he attempted to claim income from the properties his father had put in trust for her. Portrait: memorial brass at Faulkborne.
see JANE van KETHULLE
MARGARET DANIELL (d.1561+) (maiden name unknown)
Margaret was married three times, first to a man named Godwin of Chippenham, Wiltshire, then to Richard Hitchcock, and finally to Geoffrey Daniell, a lawyer of the Inner Temple, London. In 1531, as a widow, Margaret Hitchcock sold wool worth £36 to Nicholas Taylor, a Gloucestershire clothier. Taylor was to pay the money to one Thomas Wilkes "to the use of" Margaret's children. By 1537, Margaret had married Geoffrey Daniell and together they brought suit against Wilkes in the Court of Requests. Taylor said he’d given the money to Wilkes. In 1538, after Thomas Wilkes's death, his brother, John Wilkes, deposed that this was so. But Thomas Wilkes's widow, Edith, and his son, another John Wilkes, denied all knowledge of the transaction. The outcome is unknown. Meanwhile, Daniell went on to become surveyor to Anne of Cleves (1540) and Kathryn Parr (by 1545) and later was a steward in the service of Thomas Seymour, Lord Sudeley (by 1548). He acquired St. Margaret's, Marlborough, Wiltshire by 1543. He made his will on July 9, 1558, leaving his widow her jointure, £100, and 400 sheep, plus all the goods in their dwelling house at St. Margaret's. The will was proved February 4, 1561. They do not seem to have had any children.
see THOMASIN BARDFIELD
see ANNE PURY; ANNE STRADLING
ANNE DANVERS (d.1558)
Anne Danvers was the daughter of William Danvers of Culworth, Northamptonshire, Calthorpe, Oxfordshire, and Chamberhouse at Crookham, Berkshire (c.1432-April 1504) and Anne Pury (d.1530). She married Richard Verney of Compton Verney, Warwickshire (c.1464-September 28, 1527) and was the mother of Anne (d.1523), Thomas, John, and George (c.1506-before 1540). Portraits: Anne is featured in two memorials in stained glass, formerly in the church in Compton Verney, the first in memory of her husband and executed c.1527 and the second commemorating her own death in 1558.
ELIZABETH DANVERS (1506-1522+)
Elizabeth Danvers was the daughter of John Danvers of Chamberhouse (c.1478-October 30, 1508) and Margaret Hampden. In 1518, William Boughton was granted the wardships of Elizabeth and her sisters Mary and Dorothy. Another sister, Anne, was already married. By February 1522, Elizabeth was married to Thomas Cave of Stanford, Northamptonshire (d. September 4, 1558). Their children were John, Richard (c.1527-1566), Ambrose (d.yng), Roger (c.1536-July 26, 1586), Edward, Anthony, Amy, Mary, Margaret, Elizabeth (c.1532-1562+), Margery, Barbara (d.yng), Alice, and Susan. Portrait: tomb effigy in St. Nicholas Church, Stanford-on-Avon.
see ELIZABETH NEVILLE
LUCY DANVERS (d.1621)
Lucy Danvers was the daughter of Sir John Danvers of Dauntsey (1540-December 19, 1543) and Elizabeth Neville (d.1630). She inherited property through her grandfather, making her a good catch for Sir Henry Baynton of Bromham, Wiltshire (1571-1616). They married c. 1599 and lived primarily at Bromham and at Bromhill House and had two children, Edward and Elizabeth (1606-1638). In her will, Lucy left money for a minister to say the service in Foxham Chapel in Bromhill parish and items of clothing such as an ash color velvet gown and a satin waistcoat. She was buried in Westminster Abbey on June 14, 1621.
see MAGDALEN NEWPORT
see SYBIL FOWLER
see CAMILLA GUICCIARDINI
see CATHERINE LEIGH
CATHERINE DARCY (d.1592+)
Catherine Darcy was the daughter of Sir Henry Darcy of Brimham, Yorkshire (d.1592) and his second wife, Catherine Fermor. In June 1591, she married Gervase Clifton of Leighton Bromswold (c.1570-1618). In that same year, John Dowland wrote four musical pieces for her. The Cliftons had a son, who died young, and a daughter, Catherine (c.1592-1637).
see DOROTHY MELTON
see DOUSABELLA TEMPEST
see EDITH SANDYS
see ELIZABETH TYRRELL; ELIZABETH de VERE; ELIZABETH WENTWORTH
ELIZABETH DARCY (d.1563+)
Elizabeth Darcy was the daughter of Sir Roger Darcy of Danbury, Essex (1478-September 30, 1508) and Elizabeth Wentworth (c.1470-c.1542). In 1522, she was left £200 for her dowry by her stepfather, Sir Thomas Wyndham. She married Sir John Legh or Leigh of Stockwell, Surrey (d.1566) and had one daughter, Agnes (d. between 1566 and 1590). By the time Legh made his will in 1563, they were divorced but she was still living, as evidenced by the following excerpt from the will of Sir John Legh or Leigh, transcribed by Nina Green at Oxford-Shakespeare.com
And furthermore I will that Elizabeth, my wife, upon condition hereafter mentioned, by
the way of my mere and free gift in recompense of her jointure which she late had of
certain manors, lands, tenements and other hereditaments in the county of Surrey, albeit
the said Elizabeth is not at this present, nor after my death by order of the laws of this
realm can or ought to be entitled to the same, but precluded by reason of a just and
lawful divorce made between me and the said Elizabeth had upon a just consideration,
shall have and be paid one annuity or yearly rent of £33 6s 8d of lawful English money
out of my manor of Hilton in the county of Dorset, to have and to hold the same to the
same Elizabeth and her assigns for term of her natural life at the feasts of the
Annunciation of Our Lady and Saint Michael the Archangel or within 28 days next after
either of the said feasts upon request in that behalf by even portions, upon condition that
the said Elizabeth do not at any time after my death make any claim or title to any of
those manors, lands, tenements or other hereditaments which sometime were appointed
for her jointure, nor do not claim any dower in any of my other manors, lands or
tenements in the which I have been or now am seised within the realm of England, nor do
not interrupt my executors nor any of them in the execution of this my last will and testament; And if the said Elizabeth do by any means let or go about to let that this my testament and last will shall not be in every point and article performed and observed, then I will the grant and payment of the said annuity or yearly rent of £33 6s 8d to the said Elizabeth shall cease, be void and of none effect.
One online genealogy site suggests that this Elizabeth is the same Elizabeth Darcy who married Humphrey Colles of Barton Grange and Nether Stowey, Somersetshire (d. 1570/71) and had a daughter Elizabeth (d.1580) and a son John (d.1607), but according to the entry for Humphrey in the History of Parliament, although he did marry an Elizabeth Darcy who was the daughter of Roger Darcy of Danbury, Essex, this marriage took place before 1541 and she had died by February 1,1544, when he had a license to marry Elizabeth Lambert.
ELIZABETH DARCY (1501-1536+)
Elizabeth Darcy was the daughter of Thomas, baron Darcy of Templehurst (1467-x. June 30, 1537) and Edith Sandys (1475-August 22, 1529). By April 1521, possibly on April 26, 1514, she married, as his first wife, Sir Marmaduke Constable of Nuneaton, Warwickshire (d. April 21, 1560). They had two sons and eight daughters, including the heir, Robert (1530-1591), Marmaduke, Jane, Catherine, Margery, Dorothy, Isabel, Margaret, and Frances. Elizabeth and her husband were estranged by 1534 and in 1536, when both his father and hers were involved in the Pilgrimage of Grace, she wrote a letter to Thomas Cromwell complaining of her ill-treatment by her husband. At that time, Constable was facing the probable forfeiture of his father's lands and consequent loss of his own inheritance. She died before 1539.
ELIZABETH DARCY (d. February 2, 1616/17)
Elizabeth Darcy was the daughter of John, 2nd baron Darcy of Cliche (1525-March 3, 1581) and Frances Rich (c.1539-before March 3, 1581) and the sister of Thomas, 3rd baron Darcy (1565-1640). In 1582, she married, as his second wife, John, 7th baron Lumley (1534-April 11, 1609). They lived primarily at Nonsuch, which he had inherited from his former father-in-law, the earl of Arundel, and remained there even after Lumley gave it to the queen in 1592 in return for release from the debts he also inherited from Arundel. Elizabeth was described by one writer as "a woman not only of an ancient pedigree and race, but, which is greatly to be praised, with the virtues of modesty, truth, and conjugal love." When her husband died, the title became extinct. Elizabeth inherited a house on Tower Hill, Lumley Castle in Durham, and land in Yorkshire and Sussex. She left the London house to her brother, with reversion to his daughter, Elizabeth Darcy, Lady Savage, on his death. Portrait: by unknown artist at Cheam; effigy in Lumley Chapel, Cheam, Surrey.
ELIZABETH DARCY (c.1584-March 9, 1650/1)
Elizabeth Darcy was the daughter of Thomas Darcy, 3rd baron Darcy of Cliche (July 5, 1565-February 1640) and Mary Kytson (1566-June 28, 1644). On May 14, 1602 she married Thomas Savage (c.1586-November 20, 1635) of Melford Hall, Suffolk. He was created Viscount Savage in 1626. Following his death and that of her father, Elizabeth was created Countess Rivers for life in her own right on April 21, 1641. She was a lady of the bedchamber to Queen Henrietta Maria and because she was a Catholic, became a target when Parliament called for action against all recusants. Her homes at St. Osyth and Long Melford were destroyed by mobs, for a loss estimated at £100,000. Although Parliament ordered restitution, her troubles continued and in May 1643 she requested permission to leave England for France, but does not appear to have gone. By her death, she was said to be bankrupt. Elizabeth and Thomas Savage had eleven sons and eight daughters, including Anne, John (c.1602-1654), Jane (1607-1633), Thomas (1611-1682), Dorothy (c.1611-1691), Charles, Elizabeth, Catherine, Henrietta Maria, Francis, William, James, and Richard. Biography: Oxford DNB entry under “Savage [née Darcy], Elizabeth.” Portrait: c.1640 by P. Leley.
see ISABEL WRAY
see KATHERINE NEVILLE
MARY DARCY (d. by July 1561)
Mary Darcy was the daughter of Thomas Darcy of Danbury, Essex, but exactly who he was is uncertain. Mary was not the daughter of Thomas, 1st baron Darcy of Cliche (1506-June 28, 1558) and Elizabeth de Vere. By 1531, Mary was married Robert Leche (Leeche/Leech), an alderman of Norwich (d.1544+) but during that marriage was the mistress of Richard Southwell of Wood Rising, Norfolk (d. January 11, 1565), who was married to Thomasine Darcy, sister of the 1st baron of Cliche. Mary had four children by Southwell before Thomasine died and Southwell was able to marry her—Richard (by 1531-1600), Dorothy, Mary (d.1622), and Thomas. Accounts that identify Mary's husband as Robert Leche of Colchester, Essex, who made his will in 1559, are incorrect, as is the claim that when Thomasine died, Southwell accused him of making a bigamous marriage with Mary, since his (Leche's) first wife still lived. In 1544, Thomas Lewyn, clerk, acting for Southwell, had license to alienate Widford Manor in Hertfordshire to the use of Mary Leech, wife of Robert Leech. In 1558, she is listed as Mary Darcy alias Leech of Horsham St. Faith, Norfolk. After their marriage, which took place no earlier than 1559, they had one additional child, Catherine.
see MARY KYTSON
ALICE DARLING (d.1629)
Alice Darling was a servant of George Whitton of Woodstock, Oxfordshire (d. November 4, 1606). Whitton had married, on September 28, 1556, Dorothy Peniston (d.1606+), a cousin of Sir Francis Knollys, but they had no children. Alice, on the other hand, bore him three, one son and two daughters. In his will, written January 27, 1605/6 with a codicil added January 29, 1606, and proved December 3, 1606, Whitton left the manor of Hensington to his son John Whitton, alias Darling, and made him executor, and left £300 to his base daughter Winifred and £200 to his base daughter Anne. He specified that his wife, "considering her weakness and imperfection," should be kept in "meat, drink, lodging and apparel fit for her rank and position." As for Alice, she was to receive £50 to be paid within one year, the bed in the chamber where she slept and all its furniture, the rents of several houses for life, and the use, profits and occupation of his malt house in Woodstock for life. There were also other bequests. The codicil was necessary because his daughter Anne had died. He redistributed her inheritance and added one more bequest for Alice—a "silver cup with gilt ribs with two ears, one iron pot and one of my coverlets which she caused to be made or spun herself." Alice outlived her lover by many years and never married. On April 10, 1629, she wrote her own will. At that time she was "of New Woodstock." It is not clear if her daughter was still living, but she made bequests to her son John (a gold ring), his children from two marriages, and the children of her daughter Winifred by her first marriage. Granddaughter Magdalen Whitton was to have one cow, bed and bedding, furniture, and a gilt silver pot while her sister Bridget was to have one cow, a bed and bedding, and furniture. For a transcription of the entire will, go to http://wills.oxfordshirefhs.org.uk/az/wtext/darling_002.html.
ELIZABETH DARRELL (d.c.1556)
Elizabeth Darrell was the daughter of Sir Edward Darrell of Littlecote, Wiltshire (1466-March 9, 1530) and either his first wife, Jane Croft (d. before 1493), or his third, Alice Flyte, to whom he was married on April 3, 1512. He left his unmarried daughter Elizabeth 300 marks in his will. His other two daughters received 100 marks each. It makes more sense that Elizabeth was the youngest, born c. 1513. She was one of Catherine of Aragon's gentlewomen until she refused to take the oath of supremacy in December 1533 and among the mourners at her funeral. Catherine left her a bequest of £200 “for her marriage.” Elizabeth asked to join the household of Queen Jane Seymour but went instead to the household of Gertrude Blount, marchioness of Exeter, although she is not listed among the "gentlewomen" in November 1538, when the marchioness and others were arrested on suspicion of treason. Apparently, she was forced to give evidence against the marchioness. In her interrogation on November 6, she confessed that she had heard that the king had sent Peter Mewtas into France to kill Cardinal Pole with a handgun. Elizabeth was the mistress of Thomas Wyatt (1503-1542) the poet and diplomat, said to be the Phyllis of his poem If waker care, if sudden pale colour. Exactly when they met and how long they were involved in a romantic relationship is unclear. Some suggest that the affair began as early as June 1532. Wyatt was out of the country a good deal as an ambassador. They could not marry because Wyatt already had a wife, Elizabeth Brooke, from whom he had long been separated. In 1537 an attempt was made by the Brooke family to force a reconciliation between husband and wife, but Wyatt refused to take her back. Elizabeth Darrell was openly living with Wyatt, as his mistress, at Allington Castle in Kent, in January of 1541, when Wyatt was arrested. Because she was pregnant at the time, she was allowed to remain in one of Wyatt’s confiscated houses. There was another attempt made at that time to force him to take back his wife, but following his release from the Tower, he returned to his mistress. Wyatt made provision in his will for Elizabeth and the son born in 1541, leaving her properties in Dorset with the right of reversion to her son, Francis, and Montacute and Tintinhull in Somerset, to revert to his son Sir Thomas on Elizabeth's death. Some accounts say she gave birth posthumously to a second son, Henry, who died young but others say there was only Henry (aka Francis). Wyatt was reputed to have another illegitimate child, a daughter named Frances who married Thomas Lee (Leigh) of St. Bees and Calder Abbey, Cumberland by 1553. She does not appear to be Elizabeth's daughter. Elizabeth apparently got along well with Wyatt’s legitimate son, Thomas Wyatt the younger, which is probably what gave rise to the identification of her as his mistress rather than his father’s. There is also a story that credits her with a third son, Edward (c.1540-1590), who was involved with the rebels led by Sir Thomas the Younger in 1554 and sentenced to be executed, even though he was only thirteen or fourteen at the time. This Edward is variously identified as a natural son of Sir Thomas the Younger and as the son of Sir Thomas the Elder. If he was thirteen or fourteen, however, he would have been born before Sir Thomas the Elder died and one would have expected him to be named in Sir Thomas’s will. It seems more likely he was the natural son the younger Thomas. He was pardoned on April 29, 1554. Elizabeth's son Francis went by the name Francis Darrell. Sir Thomas the Younger transferred Tarrant, Kent to him in 1542 (or, according to other sources, to Elizabeth in 1544). With the attainder of Sir Thomas the Younger in 1554, those properties held by Elizabeth that would have gone to him on her death, went to the Crown instead. She was in possession of Tintinhull in 1547 but it was occupied by the Crown's tenant, Sir William Petre, in 1556, and papers relating to the lease suggest that Elizabeth was by then deceased. The parsonage at Stoke, Somerset was leased to Elizabeth in 1548 and around 1554, at about the same time Queen Mary seems to have paid Elizabeth the legacy left to her by Queen Catherine of Aragon, Elizabeth married Robert Strode or Strowde. In 1560, he was living in the provost's house at Stoke. Portrait: Nicola Shulman, in her biography of Wyatt, Graven with Diamonds, suggests that the Holbein sketch variously identified as Anne Boleyn and Elizabeth Brooke is Elizabeth (Besse) Darrell, citing the hair of "crisped gold" from one of Wyatt's poems.
see MARY DANIEL; MARY RADCLIFFE
MARY DARRELL (c.1545-1594+)
Mary Darrell was the daughter of Thomas Darrell of Scotney, Kent and Mary Roydon (c.1525-1591+). In 1563, the Darrells approached John Lennard of Chevening, near Tunbridge Wells, about making a match between Mary and his son, Sampson (1545-September 20, 1615). Mary seemed agreeable and Lennard approved of her and a pre-contract was arranged. By Bartholomewtide, however, Lennard had heard rumors that Mary was to wed someone else. When he questioned the Darrells about this, they denied it. They admitted that she had another suitor, one Barnabe Googe of Gooche (June 11, 1540-February 7, 1593/4), who had been writing poems to her, but insisted that there was no “secret enticement.” The case was submitted to arbitration by Archbishop Parker of Canterbury. He removed Mary from her parents’ house and made her a ward of the court while the matter was decided. To the dismay of both the Darrells and the Lennards, the archbishop decided in favor of Master Googe, to whom Mary was wed on February 5, 1564. They had eight children: Matthew (c.1566-c.1624), Thomas (b.c.1568), Barnabe, William, Henry, Robert, Mary, and Francis. Additional details on Mary and the Lennards are given in Germaine Greer’s Shakespeare’s Wife.
ANNE DASTON (1580-1605)
Anne Daston was the eldest daughter of Richard Daston of Dumbleton. She married John Savage of Nobury, Worcestershire. She died giving birth to his son. Portrait: brass in St. Katherine’s Church, Wormlington, Gloucestershire.
(1589/90-November 6, 1674)
Catherine Daston was the daughter of Richard Daston (Dalston/Darleston) of Wormington, Gloucestershire and Anne Savage. She married her first cousin, Sir Giles Savage of Elmley Castle, Worcestershire (c.1585-January 31, 1631) on April 22, 1623 in Wormington, Gloucestershire. They had five children, four sons (Thomas, William, Giles, and John), who appear on the Savage monument in St. Mary's Church, Elmley, and a posthumous daughter, Mary, who died as an infant and who is shown on the monument in her mother's arms. Also on the monument is Sir Giles's father, William Savage, who died in 1616. Although represented on this c.1631 structure, Catherine herself lived to be eighty-four and was buried in Malvern Priory.
see ELIZABETH ARUNDELL
see KATHERINE HOWARD
see ELIZABETH MORE
see JANE SHEPPARD
see ELIZABETH TOUCHET
see CATHERINE SPELMAN
ALICE DAVY (d.1519+)
Alice Davy was a nurse to Margaret Tudor in May 1490. Hester W. Chapman in The Thistle and the Rose: The Sisters of Henry VIII says that Margaret's head nurses, Alice Davy and Alice Bywimble, had been pensioned off by November 1494. Later, Alice was a gentlewoman to Queen Catherine of Aragon. On January 5, 1519, she was granted an annuity of £10.
see CATHERINE PAKINGTON
see FAITH FULFORD
see MARGARET FINCH
see ISABEL SHIRLEY
DAY SISTERS (d. 1596+) (given names unknown)
The three daughters of Thomas Day of Great Wendon, Essex, were cited in ecclesiastical court for "going disguised to a mumming," apparently dressed as men. For "suffering to let them go," their father was also cited. The stiffest punishment for this offense was the performance of public penance.
see ALICE le HUNTE
PRUDENTIA DEACON (c.1580-December 21, 1645)
Prudentia Deacon was the daughter of John Deacon of Middlesex. She was in the household of Penelope Devereux, Lady Rich in England but on July 11, 1606 she was in Brussels, where she was received into the Abbey of the Glorious Assumption of Our Lady along with four other Englishwomen. One of the others was a Mrs. Morgan, who had previously been in the service of the countess of Sussex. Prudentia was professed as a nun on April 29, 1608, when she was said to be thirty-two, but if the age given at her death is correct, she was only twenty-seven or twenty-eight. In 1623 she was sent to a new convent at Cambrai. She served as prioress at Cambrai and worked on translations there. Biography: Oxford DNB entry under "Deacon, Prudentia."
AGNES DEAN (d.1503+?)
Agnes Dean was laundress to Elizabeth of York. She received a salary of £3 6s. 8d. a year and was paid an additional fourpence a day for food for her horse when she attended the queen on her journeys.
see ANNE DRURY; ANNE EGERTON; ANNE WENTWORTH
SYLVESTRA DEANE (d. September 1, 1587)
Sylvestra Deane was the daughter and heir of Robert Deane or Dene of Halling, Kent (d.1577) and Margaret White (d.1594). Her first husband was William Dallison or Dalison of Greetwell, Lincolnshire and Gray’s Inn (c.1545-1581), by whom she had a son, Maximilian Dallison (d.1631). On October 28, 1583, she married William Lambarde, antiquary and jurist (October 18, 1536-August 19, 1601) as his second of three wives. He was granted the wardship of her son and the lease on Halling. By Lambarde, Sylvestra had four children, Multon (1584-1634), Margaret (1586-1611), and twins Fane and Gore, whose birth was the cause of her death. She has a brass in the church of St. John the Baptist, Halling.
_____ DE BRUXIA (d. 1533+) (maiden name unknown)
This is one of my mystery ladies, and yet what is known about her is intriguing. She was the wife of an Italian musician at the court of Henry VIII and herself served in the household of Princess Mary from at least 1525-33. She is listed only as the wife of Peter de Bruxia (d.1536+), without a first name. Was she Italian like her husband? Probably not, although there was probably a Spaniard, Mary Vittorio, in the same royal household. More likely, since de Bruxia was in England before 1512, she was an English girl. What makes matters more difficult is the huge number of names/spellings used in referring to her husband. He signed himself Giovanni Pietro de Bustis but surviving records call him John Peter, John Piero, and Zuan Piero de Brescia, de Bruxia, de Brecia, de Briscia, and de Brisia. In 1512, King Henry granted him an annuity of £40 for life. At that time he was the premier court lutenist and he remained in royal service until 1536, but by 1517 he had been eclipsed by a younger lute player, probably Philip van Wilder. In 1525 and 1533, Mrs. Peter de Bruxia is listed among the ladies and gentlewomen in the household of Princess Mary and her husband is also to be found there, although as one of the gentlemen waiters rather than as a musician. He likely served in both capacities.
see JANE FROMOND; JANE WILD
ÉTIENNETTE DE LA
BAUME (d. 1521)
Étiennette de la Baume was the daughter of Marc de la Baume, seigneur of Châteauvillain and Count of Montrevel. A Flemish woman who was a maid of honor at the court of Margaret of Austria, Archduchess of Savoy and Regent of the Netherlands, she enjoyed the attentions of King Henry VIII during his visit to Lille in 1513. In August 1514, when she was about to marry Ferdinand de Neufchatel, seigneur de Marnay and Montaigu (1452-1522), as his third wife, she wrote to the king, sending him "a bird and some roots of great value" and reminding him that he had promised to give her ten thousand crowns as a wedding present. It is unclear whether or not Henry sent her the gift. Neither is it clear whether she was briefly his mistress or simply someone he flirted with during his time in Lille. Alison Weir (Mary Boleyn) suggests that this letter from Étiennette indicates that King Henry installed her in a house in Marnay and that she was still living there a year later. The wedding took place on October 18, 1514. She had no children.
ELIZABETH DE LA
see ELIZABETH MORS
see JANE ASHLEY
ELIZABETH DE LA
see ELIZABETH PLANTAGENET
MARGARET DE LA POLE
see MARGARET SCROPE
SARA DELAUNE (1576-before 1626)
Sara deLaune was the daughter of William de Laune of Nîmes, France (c.1530-1611) and Katherine de Loges (d.1607). After the St. Bartholomew Day Massacre in 1572, de Laune and his family fled to England, settling first in Rye and then moving to London, where Sara was born. Her father was assistant minister of the French Church but he also practiced medicine and in December 1582 he was summoned by the College of Physicians because he had failed to apply to them for a license. He was able to persuade them to grant him one and in 1583 was released from his ministry to focus on medicine. The family lived in Blackfriars, where de Laune bought a messuage called the Square Tower (or Church Porch) and the adjoining gatehouse for £360. The former tenant was Thomas Vautrollier the printer. Sara's oldest brother, Gideon de Laune (1565?-1659), later Royal Apothecary, married Judith Chamberlen and Sara later married Judith's cousin, Peter (or Pierre) Chamberlen (August 2, 1572-August 12, 1626). His parents and three older siblings, one of whom was also named Peter, had arrived in Southampton in 1569. Like the de Laune family, they were fleeing religious persecution. Sara and Peter had eight children: Peter (May 8,1601-1683), who was born in Blackfriars and became famous as a man-midwife, Sara (1604-1634; born Spitalfields), William, Anne (baptized January 22, 1609 in the French Church in Threadneedle Street), Henry, Robert, Nathaniel (b.1612), and Marguerite.
CECILY DELVES (c.1470-1517+)
Cecily Delves was the daughter of Sir Henry Delves of Doddington, Cheshire (one source says Shropshire) (c.1454-c.1484) and Elen (Eleanor/Helena/Elena/Hellina) Swinnerton or Swynnerton (c.1453-1489?). Her mother rapidly remarried, to Humphrey Peshall of Horsley (d. June 3, 1489), by whom she had three sons (John, Richard and William) and a daughter, Isabella. Cecily married William Mytton of Shrewsbury (1465-July 16, 1513). They had two children, Helen or Eleanor (1498-1517+) and Richard (1500/1-November 28, 1591). William owned 200 houses at the time of his death, in Habberley, Shrewsbury, and elsewhere. The family seat was at Halston, near Olwestry. The heir, Richard, became the ward of the 10th earl of Arundel, but Mytton had purchased the right to arrange his marriage and Cecily was the one who negotiated the marriage settlement for her son on September 29, 1517. He was to marry Anne, daughter of Sir Edward Grey of Enville, Staffordshire. As part of the arrangement, Cecily received a payment of £200.
ELIZABETH DENKARING (d.c.1539/40)
Elizabeth Denkaring was the daughter and heir of Philip Denkaring and Elizabeth Finch. Her first husband was Thomas Tamworth of Essex and Lincolnshire (d. January 1533), by whom she had a son, John Tamworth (c.1524-April 19, 1569). Her second husband (as his second wife) was Sir William Musgrave of Hartley, Westmorland and Edenhall, Cumberland (d.1544). They had no children. In January 1537, after Musgrave took a stand against the rebels, they were living in St. Botolph's without Aldersgate, London. When Musgrave returned home from court, looking "pensive," Elizabeth feared he had "fallen in displeasure" with the king. He had not, but her prediction that he would never be able to live in Westmorland again proved true. She appears to have remained in London until her death.
see HONORA GREY
see JOAN CHAMPERNOWNE
JOYCE DENNY (July 24, 1506-January 1560/1)
Joyce Denny was the daughter of Sir Edmund Denny of Cheshunt, Hertfordshire (c.1461-December 22, 1520) and, going by dates, Mary Troutbeck (c.1461-June 29, 1507), his second wife. Many sources say her mother was Mary Coke, Denny’s third wife, but the birthdates given for Joyce (July 29, 1495 is sometimes given in place of 1506) are both before Mary Troutbeck’s date of death. Joyce married first Sir William Walsingham (d. March 1534), a London lawyer, by whom she had Elizabeth (d. July 21, 1596), Barbara, Eleanor, Christiana, Mary (c.1527-March 16, 1576), Sir Francis (c.1532-April 6, 1590), and possibly another son named Thomas who died young. In c. 1536, she married Sir John Carey of Plashy, Hertfordshire and Thremhall Priory, Essex (1495-September 9, 1552). Her son Francis’s biographer, Robert Hutchinson, speculates that this marriage, for which he gives a date of 1538, was arranged by her family, since they owned property in Hertfordshire. Her Carey children were Wymond (March 6, 1538-August 3, 1612), Sir Edward (c.1540-July 18, 1618), and possibly a third son named Adolphus, who probably died young. Joyce died at Thremhall Priory. One genealogy says she died between November 10, 1560 and January 30, 1560/1. Other accounts give her date of death as April 6, 1559/60/61, but this was the date of her funeral, described in the diary of Henry Machyn. She was buried next to her first husband in St. Mary Aldermanbury Church in London.
see MARGARET EDGECUMBE
MARTHA DENNY (1505-January 9,1571/2)
Martha Denny was the daughter of Sir Edmund Denny of Cheshunt, Hertfordshire (c.1461-Decembe 22, 1520) and Mary Troutbeck (c.1461-June 29,1509). She married Sir Wymond Carew of Antony, Cornwall and St. Giles in the Fields, Middlesex (c.1493-August 22,1549) by July 1519 and they had nineteen children, including Thomas (1527-February 12,1564/5), Roger, George John, Matthew (1531-1618), Anthony, Harvey, Prudence (d.1586+), and Temperance (c.1537-October 9,1577). During her husband’s lifetime, the Carews lived in grand style at Bletchingley, Surrey, where he held the position of Anne of Cleves’s receiver, and had their own houses at Pyshoo, Hertfordshire and Hackney, Middlesex. When he died, Martha was left owing almost £8000 and in 1554 lost Hackney and other lands to the Crown. She petitioned the exchequer for relief, more than once, but Hackney was not returned to her and the debts were not fully discharged until 1611. Martha ended up living in London where, on September 8, 1562, she was arrested for attending mass. She was tried and convicted a month later and when she did not pay a fine of 100 marks, she was put in prison for six months. She was arrested a second time on the same charge on April 4, 1568. This time she received a pardon from Queen Elizabeth. Biography: Oxford DNB entry under “Carew [née Denny], Martha.”
MARY DENNY (c.1504-1553+)
Mary Denny was the daughter of Sir Edmund Denny of Cheshunt, Hertfordshire (c.1461-December 22, 1520) and Mary Troutbeck (c.1461-June 29, 1507) and the sister of Martha Denny and Sir Anthony Denny. She married Sir John Gates of Great Garnetts, Essex (1504-August 22, 1553) in about 1534. They had no children. After Gates was executed for treason, she was granted the manors of Garnet, Longbarns and South Fambridge and lands in Stow, Essex for life, as well as a pension of £100. She owned Pleshy Castle near Chelmsford, Essex by September 1, 1552, when she stopped at Ingatestone Hall to visit Sir William Petre and his wife. There at the same time were Sir Anthony and Lady Cooke (Anne Fitzwilliam) of Gidea Hall.
see ALICE GRANT
ELIZABETH DENT (1591-1656)
Elizabeth Dent was the daughter of John Dent of London (1532-1595), a salter and alderman, and his second wife, Alice Grant (1569-May 23, 1614). She was baptized in the church of St. Bartholomew by the Exchange, London, on October 18, 1591. In 1596, her mother married Sir Julius Caesar and it was through her stepfather that Elizabeth met her first husband, Sir Francis Vere of Kirby Hall and Tilbury Lodge, Essex (c.1560-August 28, 1609) at Mitcham in Surrey. He was around fifty years old and had earned a reputation as an extraordinary soldier while she was barely sixteen and had a dowry of £2000, but it was said to have been a love match. They were married at Mitcham on October 26, 1607 in a double ceremony with Elizabeth's sister Mary (d.1639), who wed Sir Henry Saville of Methley. During their short marriage, he was writing Commentaries, an account of his military campaigns. He was buried in Westminster Abbey where Elizabeth erected a rather spectacular monument to his memory (shown below). Although some peerages give them five children, this is clearly impossible, but they may have had one child who died infancy. Elizabeth was granted administration of the estate on August 30, 1609. One account suggests that her mother and stepfather wanted her to marry her stepbrother, Charles Caesar and discouraged other suitors right up until Charles married Anne Vanlore, the daughter of Dutch merchant Peter Vanlore, in October 1613. However, the date of her wedding to Sir Patrick Murray, later earl of Tullibardine (d. September 5, 1644) is given elsewhere as August 1613. Their children were James (September 22, 1617-January 1669/70), Charles (December 12, 1618-before March 6, 1646/7), Elizabeth (1620-before February 15, 1656), Vere (June 7, 1621-March 6, 1647), Francis (May 10, 1627-January 5, 1638/9), William (c.1628-January 23, 1645/6), Jane (d.1616), Juliana (d. 1649+), Diana (d.1672), and Patrick (October 18, 1637-March 2, 1639). Elizabeth was buried September 5, 1656.
see ANNE WILLISTON
see ELIZABETH JERNINGHAM
see MAGDALEN BROME
see MARGARET MORDAUNT
MARGERY DENTON (d.1593+) (maiden name unknown)
Margery, whose surname is unknown, married first William Denton of Southwark, Surrey and Stedham, Sussex (by 1523-July 28, 1565), steward to Sir Anthony Browne and to Anthony Browne, viscount Montagu. They had three sons and two daughters. Denton left a will that mentioned the viscount and viscountess Montagu as well as members of his own family. Her second husband was Thomas Martin of Winterbourne Martin, Dorset, Steeple Morden, Cambridgeshire, and London (1520/21-1592/3), as his second wife. They had one daughter. In his will, made July 8, 1590 and proved August 7, 1593, Thomas left Margery a portrait of Queen Mary. He left most of his property, plus portraits of himself and his first wife, Mary Roys, to his son Thomas, who later brought action in Chancery against Margery and her daughter over the administration of the personal estate of the elder Thomas.
see MARY MARTYN
see ELIZABETH DONNE; ELIZABETH STATHAM
MARY DENYS or
see MARY ROOS
MARY DENYS (1517-1593)
Mary Denys was the daughter of Sir William Denys of Dyrham, Gloucestershire (1470-June 22, 1533) and Anne Berkeley (1474-1519). She was a nun at Lacock Abbey, Wiltshire, a small house of Augustinian canonesses with fifteen professed nuns and three novices. In late 1535, this "a faire yong woman of Laycok" was appointed prioress of Kingston St. Michael, a Benedictine house, also in Wilsthire. In August 1535, there had been only three nuns at the priory. Two were guilty of incontinence and one, who was under twenty-four years of age, did not want to remain a nun. The latter was discharged. The next year, under Mary Denys, the report was better: there were four "religious of honest conversation, all desirous of remaining in religion," together with a clerk, four women servants, one waiting servant, and four farm laborers. When the priory was dissolved, Mary Denys received a pension of £5 a year. She was living in Bristol at the time of her death.
see CATHERINE TRENTHAM
MARY DEREHAM (d.1646/7)
Mary Dereham was the daughter of Baldwin Dereham of Hammersmith (c.1531-1610) and Margaret Hethe. She married Hugh Hammersley (March 1564/5-October 19, 1636), a haberdasher and member of the Russia Company who was Lord Mayor of London in 1624. They had one son, Francis (1613-1665). In his will, Hugh left £50 to buy bread for the poor, but only £35 was left over after his debts were paid. Mary made up the difference in 1640. Portrait: effigy on monument with husband in St. Andrew Undershaft, London.
THOMASIN DERHAM (c.1525-1596)
Thomasin Derham (Dearham/Dereham) was the daughter of Thomas Derham of Crimplesham, Norfolk and Ellen Touchet (Audley). Her first husband, married in 1546, was John Throckmorton (c.1516-c.1554). Several online genealogies identify John and Thomasin as the parents of George (c.1547-1513), Hugh, Thomas, and Raphael, but according to her will, she had only one son by her first husband and that was Robert Throckmorton (d.1596). Some sources say John was of Wardington, Buckinghamshire while others give Werrington, Northamptonshire. Thomasin married second John Rippes of West Walton, Norfolk, by whom she had a son, John, and a daughter, Thomazin. Her third husband was John Heath of Kepyer, Durham (d.1590). She was his second wife and had no children by him, although she refers to several members of the Heath family as her sons and daughters in her will, which was written on October 14, 1596. She calls herself "Thomazin Heathe of Acklife, widow," and leaves, among other bequests, "a gold ring with a death's head, for a remembrance of my good will" to her sister, Jane Baker, and her workday wearing apparel to whatever two maidservants were in her service at the time of her death.
see ANNE VAUGHAN
OLD COUNTESS OF
see KATHERINE FITZGERALD
ELEANOR DETHICK (d.1599+)
Eleanor Dethick, otherwise known as Mrs. Windsor, was a "notorious bawd advanced in years" when she was questioned on March 21, 1599 by the governors of Bridewell. On April 16, 1599, because of her "great age" she was spared the usual physical punishment for keeping a bawdy house. She was, however, ordered to pay a fine of £5. Apparently, she could afford it. Her approximate income in 1598 was £100. Her brothel was located next door to St. Katherine's Christchurch in the parish of Creechurch within Aldgate. The married minister, David English, age thirty-one, was one of her regular customers and she had an honored place in his congregation. Her brothel was fashionable and catered to an international clientele, including Italian, French, and Dutch customers. Eleanor customarily had four upper class whores working for her and also employed a kitchen maid (Jane), and a widow named Cecily Gray as a personal maid. Cecily, the widow of William Gray of Berkshire, who had died at sea in 1595, had two children. She spent three weeks in Bridewell on the charge that she had been intimate with David English, which she denied. She was discharged on April 21, 1599. Mrs. Windsor's establishment then apparently closed for good. For further details on Bridewell and prostitution, see Gustav Ungerer, "Prostitution in Late Elizabethan England: The Case of Mary Newborough," in Medieval and Renaissance Drama in England, Vol. 15, edited by John Pitcher, Robert Lindsey, and Susan Cerasano.
ANNE DEVEREUX (d.1554+)
Anne Devereux was the daughter of John Devereux, 2nd baron Ferrers of Chartley (d.1501) and Cecilia Bourchier (d.c.1493). She was in Mary Tudor’s entourage when Mary went to France in 1514 to marry King Louis. On October 1, 1514, Sir Walter Devereux, her brother, received £25 for a "gown of tynsel for Mistress Anne Devereux, sent over with the French Queen." Anne should not be confused with the Anne Devereux who married Henry Clifford. That Anne was the daughter of Sir Richard Devereux. This Anne Devereux married David/Davy Owen of Midhurst and Cowdray, Sussex (1459-1535), as his third wife, sometime before 1525. They had three children, Elizabeth (d.1551), Harry (d. before 1535), and John (c.1525-1559). Owen was buried in Easebourne Priory, Sussex on or about September 27, 1535, although his will was not proved until 1542, causing some to date his death in that year. In December 1535, however, Anne Owen, widow of David Owen, petitioned the king for custody of their ten year old son, John, and for £4,800, jewels, and plate, and other items. In the petition she states that her dowry was £1000 in angelettes and royals, plus clothing, and that she had spent £113 19s. 8d. on clothes for her son Harry, now deceased, while he was in royal service. She was his heir. She further asks for all the timber, iron, lead, and glass from the house of Cowtherey, which her husband gave to her for her lifetime, so that she could build a new house at Bodyngton, and for a casket Owen had until his death. It is unclear how her petition fared, but by 1538 she had remarried, taking as her second husband Nicholas Gaynesford of Ditchling, Sussex (d.c.1548). They had no children. Anne took a third husband soon after Gaynesford died, choosing John Harman of Naunton Hall, Rendlesham, Suffolk (d.1558+), a gentleman usher and member of parliament. She was his third wife. They had no children.
DOROTHY DEVEREUX (1564-August 3, 1619)
Dorothy Devereux was the daughter of Walter Devereux, earl of Essex (September 16, 1539-September 22, 1576) and Laetitia Knollys (1543-December 25, 1634). After her father died, she became the ward of the earl of Huntingdon. He hoped to marry her to his wife's nephew, Philip Sidney, even offering to provide an additional dowry if the match were made, but Dorothy's stepfather, Robert Dudley, earl of Leicester, (Lady Huntingdon's brother and therefore also Sidney's uncle), proposed a match with the king of Scotland instead. In March 1583, the Spanish ambassador, Inigo de Mendoza, reported that Leicester had assured James VI that the English crown would be his after Elizabeth Tudor's death if he married Dorothy Devereux and promised to remain a protestant. When the queen heard of the proposed match, however, she forbade it. Leicester then claimed he'd planned to marry Dorothy to a private gentleman. In July, Dorothy took matters into her own hands by eloping with Sir Thomas Perrott (September 1553-February 1594). The groom was imprisoned in the Fleet for a month and Dorothy's dowry of £2000 was not paid. In 1587, when she was at North Hall, country seat of the earl of Warwick, during a royal visit, she was ordered to keep to her room. This decree so angered Dorothy's brother, Robert Devereux, earl of Essex, that he quarreled with the queen, then sent his servants to pack Dorothy's things and rode off with her. They were ordered to return by a royal messenger. After Perrott's death, Dorothy married Henry Percy, earl of Northumberland (April 1564-November 5, 1632). They were often at odds and separated in October 1599, when Dorothy wrote to her brother that "It was his lordship's pleasure upon no cause given by me to have me keep house by myself." She did so in a house in Putney, leaving two young daughters behind. Several months later, the girls were sent to her, but with no increase in the allowance Northumberland was giving his wife. In December 1601, after her brother's failed rebellion, Dorothy and her husband again began living together, primarily at Syon. She had inherited the lease on it from her first husband and, in 1604, King James granted it to Northumberland. In London, they stayed at Essex House, which belonged to Dorothy’s mother, Lettice. Dorothy had six children, Penelope (1588-1620+) and Robert (1592-d.yng.) Perrott and Dorothy (1598-1659), Lucy (1599-November 5, 1660), Algernon (September 29,1602-October 18, 1668), and Henry (1604-March 11, 1705) Percy. Lita-Rose Betcherman's biography of Dorothy’s two younger daughters, Court Lady and Country Wife, contains many details of their mother's life, especially after their father's arrest in 1606 for complicity in the Gunpowder Plot. According to Betcherman, Dorothy suffered from depression even before Northumberland's imprisonment. On July 16, 1606, she waylaid King James on his way to chapel to plead for her husband's release from the Tower of London. She was not successful in freeing him, but she continued to be welcome at court herself, since Queen Anne was fond of her. In the summer of 1607, the queen visited Dorothy at Syon. Dorothy saw her husband regularly during the first ten years of his imprisonment, stopping her visits only after she learned of his infatuation with the newly incarcerated Countess of Somerset, Frances Howard. She did not, however, pay much attention to his wishes. She resumed marriage negotiations for his eldest daughter after Northumberland had rejected the match. The wedding, in early 1616, was kept secret from the earl until the following year. Dorothy also supported their younger daughter's betrothal to a man Northumberland refused to consider as a son-in-law. He went so far as to force the girl to stay with him in the Tower when she came for a visit. He sent her away again, infuriated to discover that she'd been meeting her future husband in the Tower through the connivance of the Countess of Somerset. Intimidated by her husband's reaction, Dorothy refused to take young Lucy in at Essex House and the girl had to go to her sister instead. That summer (of 1617), mother and daughter were reconciled and stayed at Syon together. In late August, Lucy's sister joined them and gave birth to her first child there in September. On November 6, 1617, Lucy Percy married her choice, Sir James Hay. Dorothy, out of deference to her imprisoned husband, did not attend the wedding. In August 1619, while staying at Syon with Lucy for company, Dorothy died quite suddenly of a fever. In spite of their many differences, Northumberland was deeply upset by the news of his wife's death. He remembered only that she'd never given up her efforts to win his freedom and had to be reminded by friends of how bitterly they had always quarreled. He insisted upon giving her an elaborate funeral. Her body was carried by barge from Syon to Petworth House in Sussex, where she was buried in the family crypt. Portraits: a double portrait of Dorothy and Penelope Devereux painted in 1581 is at Longleat; portrait mislabeled "Lettice Knollys" at Alnwick Castle, Northumberland.
see FRANCES HOWARD; FRANCES WALSINGHAM
see JANE VERDON
see LETTICE KNOLLYS
see MARGARET DAKINS; MARGARET GARNEYS
see MARY GREY
PENELOPE DEVEREUX (1562-1607)
Penelope Devereux was the daughter of Walter Devereux, earl of Essex (September 19,1539-September 22,1576) and Laetitia Knollys (1543-December 25,1634). Like her younger sister, she became a ward of the earl of Huntingdon after her father’s death, but in Penelope’s case, Lady Huntingdon (née Katherine Dudley) took her to court in 1581 to find her a husband. Sir Philip Sidney was suggested, but he had no prospects. Instead she was married to Robert, 2nd baron Rich (December1559-March 24,1619) on November 1, 1581. Sidney’s infatuation with Penelope, the “Stella” of his sonnets, developed after her marriage and their composition probably took place during the summer of 1582 when he was away from court. On his deathbed, Sidney is said to have called Penelope “a vanity wherein I had taken delight,” but it is unknown if the two had an affair. As Lady Rich, Penelope was a lady of the privy chamber to Queen Elizabeth. As early as 1589 she began a secret correspondence with the king of Scotland. When her brother, Robert Devereux, earl of Essex, fell out of royal favor, Penelope aggravated matters with a saucy letter to the queen. Penelope’s marriage was an unhappy one. It was not until she had borne her husband several children, however, that she began an affair with Charles Blount, 8th baron Mountjoy (1563-April 3, 1606). She then had a number of children by Mountjoy. There is considerable confusion about the paternity of many of them. Rich was probably the father of Lettice (d.1619+), Essex, Robert (March 18, 1587-April 19,1658), a daughter, possibly named Elizabeth, born November 26, 1588 who died young, and Henry (May 19, 1590-1649). Charles Blount, Lord Mountjoy was probably the father of Penelope (March 1592-October 26, 1613), Mountjoy (1597-1666), Scipio (b.December 1597), St. John, Charles (d.1645), and Isabel. In 1595 Penelope worked out a settlement with Rich and in 1601 they were formally divorced. However, under the Anglican church, remarriage was forbidden while a former spouse still lived. 1601 was also a significant year in Penelope’s life for another reason. Her brother the earl of Essex attempted to take over the government and was executed for treason. Even though Penelope had twice been put under restraint in the past for defending her brother and even though Essex blamed her for inciting him to rebellion, she was not severely punished. Penelope maintained that she had been more like a slave than a sister to Essex and had done what he told her to out of love for him. She was released into Lord Rich’s care. When James became king in 1603, Penelope was appointed a lady of the bedchamber to Queen Anne and given precedence at court over all other baronesses and over the daughters of all but four of the earls (Oxford, Arundel, Northumberland, and Shrewsbury). She forfeited her place, however, by marrying her long-time lover on December 26, 1605. He died the following spring. Seven books were dedicated to Lady Rich between 1594 and 1606. Penelope converted to Roman Catholicism late in life. Her former husband, Lord Rich, was at her side when she died. Biographies: Sylvia Freedman, Poor Penelope; Sally Varlow, The Lady Penelope; Oxford DNB entry under "Rich [née Devereux], Penelope." Portraits: double portrait with her sister Dorothy, 1581; portait said to be Penelope at Lambeth Palace; miniature.
MRS. DEWSE (d.1590+) (given and maiden names
Mrs. Dewse was the wife of William Dewse, keeper of Newgate Prison from 1580-1594, and the mother of his children. There are two letters in the Landsdowne ms. relating to the claims made by a man named Finkel against Dewse, one to the recorder of London and the other to Lord Burghley. They complain of the "vile practices" of the keeper. By 1590, Dewse had been accused by one Humphrey Gunston of a number of abuses and misdemeanors and Dewse had accused Gunston of slander. Gunston's claims were supported by two justices of the peace, Justice Young and Sir Rowland Heyward (who had been Lord Mayor in 1570 and would complete the 1590-91 term when the incumbent died in office), and the underkeeper at Newgate, Nicholas Sye. As a result, Dewse was about to be charged and bound over for trial, a circumstance that Mrs. Dewse knew would be disastrous for her and her children. She therefore resorted to witchcraft to save her family. She consulted a London conjurer, Robert Birche, telling him that she wanted him to make wax images of Young, Heyward, and Sye, "thieves and villains," according to Mrs. Dewse, so that she could stick pins in them and that, failing that, she wanted a spell to make them perish from the "damp" (typhus). Birche reported her to the authorities and then proceeded to entrap her by getting her to make the images herself. She had no idea she was being set up. Not only did she pay him in money but she also sent him a sugar loaf and some lemons as a gift. When the sheriff (the two London sheriffs that year were Nicholas Mosley and Robert Broke) searched her house he found two pictures hidden in "a secret place" in her cupboard "with pins sticked in them." She was not, however, taken into custody until she expanded her plans to include threats against the sheriff himself, the recorder, the lord chamberlain (for not reading her husband's petitions) and the lord chancellor. As is so often the case, the records do not tell us what ultimately happened to her, but as Deborah Willis points out in Malevolent Nurture: Witch-Hunting and Maternal Power in Early Modern England, from which most of the above information comes, unless one of her victims actually died, Mrs. Dewse's punishment was likely no more than a year's imprisonment and four appearances in the stocks. Interestingly, the previous keeper of Newgate, one Crowder, had also been removed from office, following the complaint that he took bribes and that he and his wife were "most horribl blasphemers and swearers." In April 1594 the council solicited the mayor and aldermen of London to appoint Richard Hutchman keeper of Newgate to replace "Dios, deceased." The name Dewse is variously spelled Dews, Deyos, Dyos, Dios, Devyes, Devies, Duce, and Dewce in documents of the time.
see ABIGAIL HEVENINGHAM
ANNE DIGBY (d.1539+)
Anne Digby was the daughter of Sir John Digby of Kettleby (d.1533) and Katherine Giffin. She married Sir William Skeffington (1460-December 21, 1535), Lord Deputy of Ireland from 1529-1535, as his second wife and was the mother of John, Thomas, Catherine, Isabel, and Anne. The Oxford DNB also identifies Leonard Skeffington, later Lord Lieutenant of the Tower of London, as Anne’s son, but most genealogies indicate he was the son of the first Lady Skeffington, Margaret Digby, daughter of Sir Everard Digby of Tilton, Leicestershire. Lady Skeffington wrote two letters to announce the death of her husband, both still extant, from Dublin on January 26, 1536, one to Secretary Thomas Cromwell and the other to Queen Anne Boleyn. In the letter to Cromwell, she attached a list of requests. They included, among other things, the fees and stipends due her late husband, license to convey back to England her husband’s horses and other moveable goods, and travel expenses. The letter to the queen asked her to persuade the king to support her petition to Cromwell. In another letter to Cromwell, dated Dublin, February 18, 1536, she complains of Lord Leonard Grey, who had replaced her husband as Lord Deputy, claiming that he would not let her take her own belongings out of the castle at Maynooth and had prevented the ship due to take her home from leaving Ireland. A third letter, dated August 1, 1536, still from Dublin, informs Cromwell that Lord Leonard has released her belongings, but complains that she still cannot afford the journey home unless the wages due her late husband are paid to her. She eventually returned to England. On April 27, 1539, she again wrote to Lord Cromwell, this time from Colliweston, to say that "I have been so straitly ordered with my husband's children, that I have no house of my late husband's to put my head in; neither have I any house of any other man but only from year to year." She also had to write to Cromwell to ask that the sentence of outlawry be lifted from her and others who had been sureties to the king for her late husband. In that letter, she complains not only of being improverished, but also of age and sickness.
see ELEANOR ROPER
KATHERINE DIGBY (d. before 1570)
Katherine Digby was the daughter of Sir Thomas Digby and Dorothy Oxenbridge. Her father was knighted by Henry VII at Bosworth Field. Her mother remarried after his death, taking as her second husband Eustace Braham. Katherine married Simon Wheeler of Kenilworth, Warwickshire. After his death, she wed John Fisher of Olney, Buckinghamshire (d. March 8, 1570/1), bringing him the manor of Packington, Warwickshire from the estate of her first husband. At the dissolution of the monasteries, Fisher bought Great Packington church for £626. He was a gentleman pensioner to King Henry VIII, King Edward VI, Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth. John and Katherine were the parents of Sir Clement Fisher (d. October 23, 1619). Portrait: effigy in Great Packington church, transferred to a newer building in 1789.
see LETTICE FITZGERALD
see MARY MULSHO
see ANNE ST. LEGER
see ANNE HARDY
ELIZABETH DIGNELEY (1502-before 1558)
Elizabeth Digneley was the daughter of Thomas Digneley or Dingley of Stanford Dingley, Berkshire and Middle Aston, Oxfordshire (d.1502) and Philippa Harpsfield. Her father died when she was two months old. By 1518, she had married George Barrett of Belhus in Aveley, Essex and been widowed. They had five children, including, Edward (d.1558+). At some point before that, but after she was a widow, she brought suit in Chancery against her great uncle, Francis Digneley (c.1465-1538/9) for possession of the deeds to her inheritance, lands in Hampshire and several adjoining counties. By 1530, she married a close friend of her first husband, John Baker of London and Sissinghurst, Kent (c.1489-December 23, 1558), attorney general from 1536-1540 and chancellor of the Exchequier from 1540 until his death, by whom she had six children, including Richard (c.1530-1594), John (c.1531-c.1605), and three daughters. One daughter, Cecily (1535-October 1, 1615), married Thomas Sackville, later earl of Dorset. The eldest, Elizabeth, (d. November 17, 1583) was the first wife of Thomas Scott of Scot's Hall, Smeeth, Kent (d.1594). The other, Mary, married John Tuften. Elizabeth was buried in the church at Cranbrook, Kent, at some point before Baker made his will on October 16, 1558.
see JANE MOORE
MARY DIXWELL (d. by 1595?)
Mary Dixwell was one of three daughters of Humphrey Dixwell of Churchover, Warwickshire (d.1572+) and Ellen or Eleanor Low or Lowe (given as Anna Loe on one site). She married Robert Price of Washingley (d.1595), who erected a tomb in Holy Trinity Church in Churchover to himself and his wife and her parents. Portrait: tomb effigy, Churchover.
see JOANNA DYNGLEY
MARGERY or MARGARET DOCKRAY
see MARGERY or MARGARET PUTTENHAM
see CHRISTIAN or CHRISTIANA WALSINGHAM
DOROTHY DODDRIDGE or DODDERIDGE
see DOROTHY BAMPFIELD
see DOROTHY WILBRAHAM
see LEONORE VIERENDEELS
ANNE DONNE (c.1471-c.1507)
Anne Donne was the elder daughter of Sir John Donne of Kidwilly, Carmarthenshire (d. January 1503) and Elizabeth Hastings (c.1450-1508). She was painted as a child in the Donne Triptych, with her mother. She married Sir William Rede of Boarstall, Buckinghamshire (1467-c.1527) and had by him three children, Leonard (d. before 1552), Elizabeth (d.1508+) and Mary (d.1508+). It was Rede’s second wife, Anne Warham, who was a member of Mary Tudor’s household (both as princess and queen) and Anne Warham, not Anne Donne, who was the mother of the Anne Rede who married Giles Greville, Sir Adrian Fortescue, and Thomas Parry.
see ANNE MORE
ELIZABETH DONNE (c.1498-1561+)
Elizabeth Donne was the daughter of Sir Angel Donne or Dun of London (c.1473-December 1506), an alderman and a merchant of the staple, and his first wife, Anne Hawardene. Her first husband, as his second wife, was Sir Thomas Mirfyn or Murfyn of London (d.1523), who had been Lord Mayor in 1518. They had three daughters, Margaret, Frances, and Mary (d.1542). Mirfyn left them very well off. Frances had a dowry that included houses in St. Helens Bishopsgate and Stepney. Elizabeth married second, by a license dated July 14, 1524, Sir Thomas Denys of Holcombe Burnell and Bicton, Devonshire, (1480-February 18, 1560/1), by whom she had five sons, George, Robert (1530-1593), Edward, Walter, and Gabriel, and three daughters, including Anne and Margaret. Denys served as chamberlain of the household of Cardinal Wolsey, comptroller of the household of Princess Mary, and chancellor to the household of Anne of Cleves and had close ties to Thomas Cromwell through the marriage Frances Mirfyn to Richard Cromwell (alias Williams). It has been suggested that Elizabeth was also part of Anne of Cleves' household, but the issue is confused by the fact that the wife of Anthony Denny, Joan Champernowne, was certainly there. Elizabeth was named executor of the will her husband made on December 13, 1558.
see ELIZABETH HASTINGS; ELIZABETH HEYWOOD
MARGARET DONNINGTON (1510-January 20,1562)
Margaret Donnington was the only daughter of John Donnington of Stoke Newington, Middlesex (d.1544) and Elizabeth Pye. She married three times, each time improving her lot. Her first husband was Sir Thomas Kytson of London and Hengrave, Suffolk (1485-September 11, 1540), a widower with one daughter (Elizabeth), who built Hengrave Hall between 1525 and 1538. King Henry VIII often visited them there. Kytson also had houses in Milk Street, London, Stoke Newington, Westley, and Risby, Suffolk, and Torbrian, Devonshire. Kytson and Margaret were the parents of Frances (c.1527-c.1586), Katherine (d. before November 8, 1586), Dorothy (1531-May 2, 1577), Anne, and Thomas (October 9, 1540-January 28, 1603), the latter born posthumously. By a marriage settlement dated November 10, 1541, Margaret took a second husband, Sir Richard Long of Shengay or Shingay, Cambridgeshire and Draycot, Wiltshire (c.1494-September 30, 1546), a courtier. She had four children by him, Jane (c.1541-c.1562), Mary (c.1543-1573+), Henry (March 31,1543/4-April 15,1573), and Catherine (c.1546-c.1568). Margaret was sole executrix of Long's will, made September 27, 1546. At that point, Henry was only two years nine months old and became a royal ward. He was still a minor when Queen Elizabeth visited his inheritance, Filliot's Hall, Essex, in 1561. Margaret's third husband was John Bourchier, earl of Bath (1489-February 10, 1561), as his third wife. They were married on December 11, 1548 and together they had two more daughters, Susanna and Bridget. Margaret married her eldest daughter, Frances Kytson, to her stepson, John Bourchier, Lord Fitzwarine. Margaret's monument in Hengrave Church is to herself and all three husbands. I have encountered a bit of a mystery in reading The English Noble Household 1450-1600 by Kate Mertes. She lists three manuscripts as the day books of Lady Margaret Long of Hengrave Hall, one for 1541-2, one for 1563-4, and one for 1571-2, the latter including what she calls the accounts of Thomas Kytson, Margaret's ward. The Lady Margaret Long of 1541-2 is obviously Margaret Donnington, but Thomas Kytson was her son, not her ward, but in 1563-4 and 1571-2, Margaret was already deceased. One fact Mertes gleans is probably still valid: that Margaret and her daughters employed about five maids during the period 1541-64. The Elizabeth Kytson who oversaw the later accounts, however, is not the daughter by a previous marriage that Mertes suggests, but rather Elizabeth Cornwallis, who married Thomas Kytson in 1561.
see AGNES WOODVILLE
ANNE DORMER (1525-1603)
Anne Dormer was the daughter of William Dormer of Wing and Eythrope, Buckinghamshire (1503-May 17,1575) and Mary Sidney (d.1542). In May 1558 she married Sir Walter Hungerford of Farleigh (c.1526-1596). They had four children, Lucy (1560-1598), Edmund (b.1562), Susan (b.1564), and Jane (b.1566) but in 1570, Hungerford sued Anne for divorce, claiming that she had committed adultery with William "Wild" Darrell of Littlecote, Wiltshire (June 23, 1539-October 1, 1589) between 1560 and 1568 and had had a child by him. Sir Walter also accused her of trying to poison him in 1564. Surviving letters from Anne to her "good Will" give some foundation to the charges, since she vowed she would marry him should her husband die, but Anne was acquitted and awarded costs (£250) in the law suit. Hungerford refused to pay or to support his wife while they were separated (he did agree to take her back) and spent three years in Fleet Prison as a result. In a letter written in 1570 to "Doll" (Dorothy) Essex, her sister Jane's lady in waiting, Anne complained that she had not seen her children in over a year. She also wrote to her sister at this time. In 1571, Anne received a license to travel to Louvain to visit her dying grandmother (Jane Newdigate, Lady Dormer, who died on July 7). In August of that year Anne's sister (Jane Dormer, duchess of Feria), asked that the license be extended from six months to two years. Anne took over her grandmother's household in Louvain after Lady Dormer's death and remained there. In 1573, she was granted a pension of 1,100 livres a year by the king of Spain and in 1583 he granted her a further pension of fifty escudos a month. Anne became friends with Margaret of Parma as well as with the other English exiles living in Flanders. After her only son died (the date of his death varies, depending on the source, from 1583 to 1587), Anne claimed that Hungerford was attempting to defraud their daughters of their portion. In his 1595 will, Hungerford left two farms to Margery Bright, his mistress for some years and the mother of four children by him, the last born after Hungerford's death. Upon hearing a rumor that Anne was dead, Hungerford married Margery shortly before he died with the result that both Anne and Margery sued to establish the right to inherit as Hungerford's widow. There was never any question but that the victory would go to Anne. During that same period, Anne involved herself in politics in Flanders, urging her sister, the widowed duchess of Feria, to leave Spain and travel to Brussels. She wrote a number of letters on the subject and seems to have been convinced that the duchess's journey would alarm Queen Elizabeth and turn the tide in King Philip's favor in the ongoing war in the Netherlands. Anne's nephew, Don Lorenzo, 2nd duke of Feria, took steps to thwart this intrigue and Anne seems to have given up the plan around 1599. As far as is known, Anne never returned to England. She died in Louvain.
CATHERINE DORMER (1549-March 23, 1614/15)
Catherine Dormer was the daughter of Sir William Dormer of Wing and Eythrope, Buckinghamshire (1503-May 17, 1575) and Dorothy Catesby (c.1527-September 30, 1613). Her father left her £1500 at her marriage or age twenty-four.She married Sir John St. John of Bletsoe, Bedfordshire (1544-October 13, 1596). They had two children, Oliver, who died young, and Anne (d.1638). She was buried in St. Michael's Chapel, Westminster Abbey. Portrait: effigy on tomb.
see DOROTHY CATESBY
see JANE NEWDIGATE
JANE DORMER (January 6,1538-January 13, 1612)
Jane Dormer was the daughter of William Dormer of Wing and Eythrope, Buckinghamshire (1503-May 17,1575) and Mary Sidney (d.1542). She was a favorite maid of honor to Queen Mary, having entered the queen’s service before the death of Mary's brother, King Edward VI. Jane’s hand in marriage was sought by the earl of Devon, the duke of Norfolk, and Charles Howard, later earl of Nottingham, but she accepted the proposal of Don Gomez de Figueroa, count of Feria (d. September 7, 1571). They were waiting for the return to England of Philip II to marry when Queen Mary died. Jane herself had been ill in October of 1558 but she returned to her dying mistress’s bedside in November and was entrusted with the errand of journeying to Hatfield to deliver Mary’s jewels to her sister and heir, Elizabeth Tudor. After Mary’s death, Jane lived with her grandmother, Jane Newdigate, Lady Dormer (d.July 7,1571) at the Savoy Palace. She had some questions to answer about jewels missing from Queen Mary's coffers. Queen Elizabeth appointed Catherine Carey Knollys, Marjorie Williams Norris, and Blanche Parry to question her. Her explanations appear to have satisfied them. Jane Dormer married the count of Feria on December 29 and left England in July 1559. Her party included her grandmother and six gentlewomen. Jane’s son Lorenzo (September 28, 1559-1607) was born at Mechlin, at the court of Margaret of Parma. At Amboise, France the following spring, Jane began a friendship with Mary Stewart, Queen of Scots, that lasted until the queen’s execution. Upon reaching Spain, Feria and Jane settled at Zafra in Estremadura and Feria was created duke of Feria in 1567. Jane proved so adept at running his estates after Feria’s death that Philip II considered naming her Regent of the Netherlands. Instead, she devoted her time to helping other English Catholics, although she also obtained the release of Protestant Englishmen imprisoned at Seville. In 1603, an Englishman named Henry Clifford entered her service and wrote her biography, possibly from her dictation, but it was not published until 1887. After 1609, Jane was in poor health and spent the last year of her life bedridden. She died in Madrid. She was buried in the habit of a Franciscan tertiary. Biography: Oxford DNB entry under "Suarez de Figueroa [née Dormer], Jane;" Chapter Four of Albert J. Loomie's The Spanish Elizabethans. Portraits: c.1563 by Sanches-Coello; one painted c. 1560-9 by Antonio Mor may be Jane. It may also be an unknown Englishwoman, a Netherlandish aristocrat, or one of the duke of Alva’s concubines. Margaret of Parma, once identified as the sitter, has been ruled out as the subject.
see CATHERINE BLOUNT; KATHERINE DALLAM
MARGARET DORMER (1553-April 26, 1637)
Margaret Dormer was the daughter of William Dormer of Wing and Eythrope, Buckinghamshire (1503-May 17, 1575) and his second wife, Dorothy Catesby (c.1527-September 30, 1613). Her father left her £1500 at her marriage or age twenty-four. In a marriage contract dated October 26, 1578, she married Sir Henry Constable of Burton Constable, Holderness and Halsham, Yorkshire (c.1551-December 15, 1607) and as Lady Constable was a notable recusant who spent time in prison in 1592, 1593, 1595, and 1607. On March 6, 1582, she was to appear before the Commissioners for Jesuits and seminary priests but the Privy Council intervened. In November 1593, she was seriously ill when action against her was planned and she was again spared. In 1596, her husband kept her safe by promising to persuade her to convert. She did not. She raised her children—Catherine (c.1579-1626), Dorothy (1580-March 26, 1632), Henry (c.1582-1645), Margaret (c.1582-February 27, 1662/3), John (b.c. 1589), and Mary (c.1586-April 17, 1669+)—as pious Roman Catholics.
MARTHA DORSETT (November 10,1577-1646)
Martha Dorsett was the daughter of Robert Dorsett (d.1580), an Oxford doctor of divinity, and his wife Martha (d.1580). On her fifty-fifth birthday, in 1632, she wrote a verse narrative of fifty-five couplets, "The Memorandum of Martha Moulsworth, Widowe." The manuscript was discovered in 1992 and published in 1993, edited by Robert C. Evans and Barbara Wiedemann as "My Name Was Martha": A Renaissance Woman’s Autobiographical Poem. Orphaned at an early age, Martha was raised by her maternal grandmother, Helena, and Helena's husband, Ralph Johnson. On April 28, 1598 she married Nicholas Prynne (d.1604), a London goldsmith. They were married five years and eight months and had two children, Richard (1602-before 1632) and Martha (1604-before 1632). After a year of mourning, she married again, this time to Thomas Thorowgood (d.1615), a London draper with a house in Hoddesdon, Hertfordshire. The wedding took place on February 3, 1605 and they were married ten years and nine months. They had no children, but Martha was close to his only child, Elizabeth. Thorowgood was apparently quite wealthy. His daughter was said to have a marriage portion of £10,000. Martha did not marry again for three years and eight months. Her third husband was Bevil Molesworth, another London goldsmith (1554-February 24, 1631). They married on June 15, 1619, were married eleven years and eight months, and had one son who died young. By her third marriage Martha acquired two more stepdaughters. She saw no need to marry again, writing that "this must be my care/of knittinge here a fourth knot to beware." Biography: Oxford DNB entry under "Moulsworth, Martha."
see ELIZABETH TOUCHET
MARGARET DOUGLAS (October 8, 1515-March 7, 1578)
Margaret Douglas was the daughter of Margaret Tudor (1489-1541) by her second husband, Archibald Douglas, 6th earl of Angus (1489-1557). She was thus half sister of James V of Scotland and granddaughter of Henry VII of England. Her mother was fleeing from Scotland, seeking shelter with her brother, Henry VIII, when Margaret was born at Harbottle, on the English side of the border. At barely fifteen, she was appointed chief lady in waiting to her cousin, Princess Mary. Three years later, she was at court as one of Anne Boleyn's ladies. Margaret was in and out of trouble all her life. She formed two unacceptable romantic alliances with English suitors and was confined for a time after each incident. She may actually have married Thomas Howard (1512-October 29, 1537), one of the duke of Norfolk's half-brothers. Thomas died in the Tower of London, where he had been imprisoned for his liaison with Margaret. Margaret remained close to Thomas Howard's niece, Mary Howard, duchess of Richmond, who had been married to Henry FitzRoy. Their "circle" had a literary bent and they all wrote poetry, although only the sonnets of Mary's brother, the earl of Surrey, achieved renown. During Catherine Howard's time as queen, Margaret was romantically involved with the queen's brother, Charles Howard. On July 6, 1544, Margaret married Matthew Stuart, earl of Lennox (1516-1571). They had four sons and four daughters but only two sons survived to adulthood, Henry, Lord Darnley (1545-1567) and Charles, earl of Lennox (1556-1577). Shortly before Henry VIII’s death, Margaret quarreled with him over a matter of religion (she remained a devout Catholic all her life) and was disinherited. She was high in favor under Queen Mary, but under Queen Elizabeth she was under arrest on three separate occasions, once on suspicion of witchcraft and treason, once because her son, Lord Darnley, had married the queen of Scots, and once because she conspired to marry her other son, Charles, to Elizabeth Cavendish. Biography: Kimberley Schutte, A Biography of Margaret Douglas; Oxford DNB entry under "Douglas, Lady Margaret;" for her writing, see Elizabeth Heale, ed., The Devonshire Manuscript: A Woman's Book of Courtly Poetry. Portraits: tomb effigy; included in the Darnley Centograph of 1567/8 by Livinus de Vogelaare; two portraits, one full length and painted in 1572 are not authenticated. Alison Weir suggests that the alleged Holbein portrait of Mary Boleyn may actually be Margaret Douglas. Susan E. James argues for the identification as Margaret Douglas of the miniature c. 1540 by Hans Holbein once said to be Queen Catherine Howard.
MAGDALEN DOWNES (d.1552+)
Magdalen Downes was a novice in the Benedictine priory of Ankerwick in Buckinghamshire by 1519. In that year, Bishop Atwater found two cases of apostasy in the priory. Two nuns had left the monastery. One had married, but since marriage was forbidden to professed nuns, she was declared to be living in sin in the house of a relative. Magdalen went on to become the last prioress of Ankerwick, succeeding Alice Worcester when Alice resigned in 1526. After Ankerwick was dissolved, Magdalen achieved notoriety by becoming the only former nun in Buckinghamshire to marry. According to a footnote to the article on Ankerwick Priory in British History Online, there were only a few nuns in all of England who married after the Dissolution of the Monasteries. Several came from Elstow in Bedfordshire and fourteen from Lincolnshire (eight of them Gilbertine nuns).
see MARGARET NEVILLE
see ANNE EDGECUMBE
ELIZABETH D’OYLEY (1592-1612+)
Elizabeth D’Oyley (sometimes written Doyle) was the daughter of Edmund D’Oyley of Shottisham, Norfolk (d.1612+) and Catherine Neville (b.1570). In 1607 or 1608, she married Robert Buxton of Tibbenham, Norfolk (d. January 17, 1610/11). His surname is given incorrectly as Barston in the Visitation of Essex. They had one child, a son, John (c.1609-1660). His wardship was granted to Elizabeth and her father. She married second William Perte or Pert of Arnolds, Mountnessing, Essex (d.1637?). By his first wife, Isabel Conyers, he had a daughter, Margaret (c.1610-1686). He had no children by Elizabeth D’Oyley. The inscription (added later) on the portrait by Robert Peake c.1608, is misleading. It seems to identify the sitter as a Conyers co-heiress and the mother of Margaret Buxton. In fact, it was Margaret Perte, Elizabeth's stepdaughter, who was the co-heiress. Margaret Perte became Margaret Buxton by her marriage to Elizabeth’s son, John.
see FRANCES EDMONDS
see MARGARET HOWARD
see ELIZABETH SYDENHAM
ANNE DRAPER (August 1560-March 29, 1641)
Anne Draper was the daughter of John Draper (d. 1576), a wealthy London brewer, and Margery Wilkes (d.1600/01). After her father’s death, his clerk, Thomas Hobson, wanted to marry her, but Anne’s mother refused and dismissed him. He took her to court. She claimed he’d “shamefully, wickedly, and horribly” tried to marry Anne. Exactly what this entailed is not spelled out, but it was obviously more than Margery Draper was willing to allow. On June 4, 1579, Anne married Eustace Bedingfield (d. May 19, 1599). They had several children, including two named Anne, one who died in 1581 and one who survived her mother. Anne Draper’s inheritance from her father included a piece of property in Clerkenwell. By 1605, she had leased this to Aaron Holland, who built the Red Bull theater on the property. Biography: Oxford DNB entry under “Bedingfield [née Draper], Anne.” Portrait: memorial brass 1641, All Saints, Darsham, Suffolk.
ELIZABETH DRAPER (d. April 27, 1605)
Elizabeth Draper was the daughter of Robert Draper of Camberwell and Elizabeth Fyfield. She married first, on June 17, 1550, John Bowyer of Shepton Beauchamp, Somerset and Lincoln's Inn (d. October 10, 1570), as his second wife. Bowyer's commonplace book describes Elizabeth's wedding ring in detail and also records the apparel purchased for the occasion. The entries include four ells of tawney taffeta at 11s. 6d. an ell for a Venice gown, seven yards of crimson silk camlet at 7s. 6d. a yard for a kirtle, and eight yards of black russet at 4s. 6d. a yard for a Dutch gown. Smaller amounts of fabric purchased included tawny velvet, crimson satin, tawny satin, black velvet, tawny damask, and scarlet for a petticoat. The couple had eight sons and three daughters, including Edmond (May 12, 1552-c.1626), Elizabeth (June 10, 1553-1590+), John, Matthew, Luke (1563-5), Benjamin, and Gregory. On September 9, 1572, Elizabeth remarried, taking as her husband William Forster (d. before 1605), by whom she had a son and a daughter. As a widow for the second time she lived beside the Free School. Portrait: memorial brass in Camberwell.
see ELIZABETH GARTON
see ELIZABETH FITZHERBERT
see WELTHIAN YARDE
see ELIZABETH BROUGHTON
MARGARET DRIVER (1526-1556) (maiden name unknown)
Margaret Driver, called Alice in Foxe's Book of Martyrs, was the wife of Nicholas Driver, a farmer from Grundsiburgh. She was arrested for helping the fugitive Alexander Gooch. When she compared Queen Mary to Jezebel, her ears were cut off as punishment. She was excommunicated on May 28, 1558. For her execution in Ipswich, she was chained on the pyre by her neck. Her last words are supposed to have been "here is a goodly neckerchief, blessed by God for it." The execution took place just ten days before the death of the queen.
ANN DRURY or DREWRIE
(x. May 13,1573) (maiden name unknown)
According to John Bellamy, in Strange, Inhuman Deaths: Murder in Tudor England, Ann Drury was a "sinister widow . . . notorious for her palmistry and 'surgery.'" With her friend, Ann Saunders, Ann Drury plotted the murder of Ann's husband, George Saunders. Bellamy gives a full account of the case in Chapter 6 of his book, based on contemporary pamphlet written about the crime and later accounts in the chronicles of Stow and Holinshed. From evidence in her speech from the gallows, it would seem that Ann Drury was once in the service of Henry Stanley, Lord Strange, who had succeeded his father as earl of Derby the previous year and was present at her execution. She asked his forgiveness and insisted that she was not responsible for his separation from his wife (see MARGARET CLIFFORD). Bellamy interprets this statement as indicating one of two things. Either Ann had been sexually involved with the earl or she had practiced palmistry while a member of his household. Ann also denied from the scaffold that she had ever used witchcraft or sorcery, poisoned her own husband, or accused any merchants' wives of unchaste living. She had confessed, however, to having instructed George Browne how to kill George Saunders in March 1573, and to paying him when he reported to her that he’d done the deed. Browne, when apprehended, claimed that Ann Drury had also promised him that she would arrange his marriage to the newly made widow. Browne pled guilty to murder and was executed. Mrs. Drury, when questioned, also confessed and was imprisoned, along with her servant, Roger Clement. It was Clement who implicated Mrs. Saunders. The two women were tried in May at the Guildhall, charged with being accessories both before and after the murder. On May 6, both were convicted and sentenced to be hanged at Smithfield a week later. While in Newgate awaiting execution, a defrocked clergyman named Mell offered to provide a dowry for Ann Drury's daughter if Ann would exonerate Mrs. Saunders, with whom Mell had fallen in love after seeing her at her trial. He hoped to obtain a pardon for Ann Saunders and then marry her. This plan failed and both women were hanged. The play, A Warning to Fair Women (1599), was based on this case. Exactly who Ann Drury was is not clear. Her husband's name is not given, nor is her daughter's, but if she was part of the household of Lord and Lady Strange at some point, then she may have been of gentle birth.
see ANNE BACON; ANNE JERNINGHAM
ANNE DRURY (d. September 5, 1561)
Anne Drury was the eldest of six daughters of Sir William Drury of Hawstead, Suffolk (d. January 11, 1557/8) and his second wife, Elizabeth Soothill (d. May 19, 1575). By 1540, she married Sir Christopher Heydon or Hayden of Baconsthorpe, Norfolk (1518/19-December 10, 1579). They had three sons and five daughters, including William (d.1592), Henry, and Christopher. Portrait: memorial brass in Baconsthorpe Church.
ANNE DRURY (d. May 25, 1633)
Anne Drury was the daughter of Sir Dru Drury of Riddlesworth, Norfolk (1532-April 28, 1617) and Catherine Finch (d. September 13, 1601). On August 27, 1604, she married John Deane of Maplestead Magna, Essex (1583-February 17, 1625) by whom she had Anne (d.1642+), Elizabeth, Dru (d. 1638), John, Dorcas, Frances, Mildred, and one other daughter who died young. When Deane died, he left marriage portions to his daughters that totaled £2600. He left his widow a life interest in Dynes Manor and adjoining property in Maplestead and named her co-executor with their eldest son. After Anne died, she was memorialized on two monuments in the chapel built for her husband in St. Giles, Great Maplestead. She and her children are shown above her husband on his memorial. On a second, she is shown rising in her shroud behind the effigy of her son. This "resurrection" monument was executed in 1634 by William Wright of Charing Cross. It bears the following inscription: "Her Shape was rare, Her Beauty exquisit, Her entertainment hearty, Her conversation lovely, Her Courses modest, Her Discourses wise, Her Practise holy, Her Religion pure, Her Faith unfaygnd, Her Hope stable, Her Wytt accurate, Her Judgment singular, Her Harte merciful, Her Hand helpful, Her Charity heavenly, Her Amity constant, Her Vowes Lawful, Her Meditations divine, Her Prayers devout, Her Devotions diurnall, Her Days short, Her Life everlasting."
see CATHERINE FINCH
see ELIZABETH CALTHORPE; ELIZABETH SOTEHILL; ELIZABETH STAFFORD
ELIZABETH DRURY (January 4, 1577/8-February 26, 1653/4)
Elizabeth Drury was the second daughter, third of six children, of William Drury of Hawstead, Suffolk (May 20, 1550-January 8, 1589/90) and Elizabeth Stafford (c.1546-February 6, 1598/9). She married William Cecil, 3rd baron Burghley and later (1623) 2nd earl of Exeter (1566-1640) and was the mother of Elizabeth (1595-1672, Richard (d.yng), Diana (c.1596-April 27, 1654), and Anne (c.1596-1676). The family lived primarily at Burghley House near Stamford, Lincolnshire and in Exeter House on the Strand. Her will was proved April 20, 1654. She was buried in St. James, Clerkenwell. Portraits: by William Larkin, c.1614-18; attributed to Paul van Somer, 1618, English School, 1654.
FRANCES DRURY (June 13, 1576-1642)
Frances Drury was the daughter of Sir William Drury of Hawstead (May 30, 1550-January 18, 1590) and Elizabeth Stafford (c.1546-February 6, 1598/9). She married first, in 1596, Sir Nicholas Clifford of Bobbing, Kent (1572-1599) and second, in 1600, Sir William Wray of Glentworth, Lincolnshire (1557-August 13, 1617). Her children were Frances Clifford (d. 1658) and Christopher (1601-February 8, 1646), George, Charles, and Frances Wray. Her will was written on May 27, 1637 and proved in 1642. She was buried in Ashby Church, Lincolnshire. Portrait: c.1590 miniature by Nicholas Hilliard may be Frances Drury; effigy on Wray tomb.
KATHERINE DRURY (d.1599+)
Katherine Drury was the daughter of William Drury of Besthorpe, Norfolk (d.1552) and his second wife, Dorothy Brampton. She married John Chamberlain of Ellingham. Her brother Roger (d.1599), left her £6 in his will, apparently because "her bad husband" did not provide for her.
see MARGARET WENTWORTH
see MARY SOUTHWELL
SUSANNA DRURY (1584-September 29, 1606)
Susanna Drury was the daughter of Sir William Drury of Hawstead (May 30, 1550-January 18, 1590) and Elizabeth Stafford (c.1546-February 6, 1598/9). Suffolk Manorial Families by Joseph James Muskett includes a transcript of a memorandum stating the terms of her will, made on September 20, 1606. In this document, she is identified as being "of Glentworth" in Lincolnshire and as "being sicke in bodye but of sound and perfect memorye." She directed her words to her sister, Frances, wife of Sir William Wray and made Wray and Lord Burghley, husband of her sister Elizabeth, her executors. She made bequests of money and clothing to various relatives and servants. The will was proved at London on November 14, 1606. Muskett then adds the story, quoted from an 1831 issue of Gentleman's Magazine, of how Susanna Drury died. She was visiting Lady Wray at Glentworth and went riding but, not being a proficient horsewoman, was "fastened to her saddle with straps that she might not be dismounted." Unfortunately, the horse ran away with her and she dashed her head against the branches of a tree, sustaining injuries that proved fatal. She was buried in Ashby Church and an effigy was erected there in her memory. She is shown with two greyhounds. The Latin inscription reads "Unhappy only in her death, she burst the portals on the feast day of St. Michael, 1606, and joined the choirs of the blessed, having numbered but two and twenty years." Portrait: effigy in Ashby, Lincolnshire.
URSULA DRURY (1492-1522/3)
Ursula Drury was the daughter of Sir Robert Drury of Hawstead, Suffolk (d. February 8,1535) and Anne Calthorpe. On July 5, 1515, she married Sir Giles Alington of Horseheath, Cambridgeshire (June 1499-August 22, 1586). She had a son, Robert (1520-May 22, 1552) and a daughter, Margaret. Zillah Dovey, in An Elizabethan Progress, gives her date of death as 1552, but since Alington remarried in 1524, this is obviously incorrect. Portrait: memorial brass in Hawstead Church.
see JANE PACKINGTON
see ALICE LEIGH
see AMYE ROBSART
ANNE DUDLEY (February 1575-1610+)
Anne Dudley was the daughter of John Dudley of Stoke Newington, Middlesex (1530-December 29, 1580) and Elizabeth Gardiner (1542-June 1602). When her father died, she was six years old. His will asked the countess of Warwick to "stand good lady" to Anne and her mother. In September 1582, her mother married Thomas Sutton of Littlebury, Essex. In 1590, Anne married Sir Francis Popham of Wellington, Somerset (c.1570-July 28, 1644). Her dowry was 700 acres in Stoke Newington and Tottenham. In 1547, they settled at Littlecote, Wiltshire. Their thirteen children included Francis (d. May 7, 1671), Alexander (1605-1669), Edward (1610-1651), John (d.1638) and seven daughters. Anne probably died before her husband. Portrait: effigy on her father-in-law's monument in Wellington, Somerset.
see ANNE RUSSELL; ANNE SEYMOUR; ANNE WHORWOOD
see CECILY GREY
see ELIZABETH GARDINER; ELIZABETH GREY; ELIZABETH SOUTHWELL; ELIZABETH STUCLEY; ELIZABETH TALBOYS
ELIZABETH DUDLEY (1488-1560)
Elizabeth Dudley was the daughter of Edmund Dudley (1462-x.1510) and Anne Windsor. She was betrothed to Peter Stourton, one of the sons of Edward, 6th baron Stourton, but when he died, she married his younger brother, William, 7th baron Stourton (1484-September 16, 1548), who succeeded to the title in 1535. They were married in about 1516. Their children were Ursula (1518-September 4, 1551), Charles, 8th baron (c.1521-x.March 6, 1556/7), Francis, Dorothy, Andrew, Arthur (c.1524-1558), William (c.1526-November 22, 1581), George, Giles, John, and another Francis. In spite of their numerous children, the marriage was not a happy one and the couple separated. Stourton lived with his mistress, Agnes Rhys, while Elizabeth, at least part of the time, lived in the home of William Hartgill, her husband's steward, at Kilmington, on the border of Wiltshire and Somerset and two miles from Stourton House. It was there, shortly after her husband's death, that her son Charles confronted her with the demand that she vow never to remarry. What he really wanted was to gain control of her widow's third of the estate. He wanted her to accept an annuity of 100 marks and live with him in lieu of the jointure she was entitled to, or live at Stourton Caundle manor with an annuity of 200 marks. Either way, she would lose her annuity if she remarried. Elizabeth objected. Hartgill supported her rights. But Charles removed her from Kilmington against her will and took her to Stourton House. This was not the only bone of contention between Lord Stourton and the Hartgills and the feud between them raged on until January 1557, when Stourton and his men murdered William Hartgill and his son John. For this crime, Charles was executed. By the mid-1550s, however, Elizabeth had escaped his control and married Edward Ludlow of Maiden Bradley, Wiltshire. Elizabeth was the half sister of John Dudley, duke of Northumberland, and therefore aunt of Robert Dudley, Queen Elizabeth's favorite. For this reason, even though she was seventy years old by then, was probably the Lady Stourton at court in 1558/9. The alternative is her Catholic daughter-in-law, Anne Stanley (d.1602), Charles's widow.
see FRANCES PICKERING
see JANE GUILDFORD
KATHERINE DUDLEY (November 1545-August 4, 1620)
Katherine Dudley was the daughter of John Dudley, duke of Northumberland (1504-x.August 22, 1553) and Jane Guildford (1509-January 15, 1555). Although the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography gives her birthdate as c.1538, there is a record of a christening on November 30, 1545 that several authorities believe was Katherine's. The godparents were Francis van der Delft, Imperial Ambassador to England, Princess Mary, and Catherine Willoughby, duchess of Suffolk, who hosted a reception at Suffolk Place, Southwark. Assuming this birthdate to be correct, Katherine was seven when she was married to eighteen-year-old Henry Hastings (1535-December 14, 1594) on May 24, 1553 at Durham House in the Strand. Three months later, her father was arrested and executed for treason. It would have been easy for her father-in-law, the earl of Huntingdon, to have her marriage annulled. Instead he took her to Ashby-de-la-Zouche to be raised with his own family. From 1555 on, under the terms of her mother's will, her brother Robert paid her a stipend of twenty marks a year. She set up housekeeping with her husband in 1560. She first came to court in 1562 or 1563 and because her brother, Robert Dudley, was the queen's favorite, she was made a lady of the privy chamber. In 1564, however, when a book on the succession urged acceptance of her husband's claim to the throne, Katherine was given "a privy nippe" by the queen. His assurance that the book was "foolishly written" did not mend the rift and for a time Katherine left the court. In 1566, according to an essay by Simon Adams in Leicester and the Court, the earl of Leicester's visit to the West Midlands was put off due to the illness "or possible miscarriage" of his sister, the countess of Huntingdon. In January 1570, Leicester and both his sisters went to meet their brother the earl of Warwick at Kenilworth. In 1576, Katherine and her husband became legal guardians of the earl of Essex's children. She was already fostering and training several young gentlewomen but had no children of her own. In 1583, she was in London with her sister-in-law, Lady Mary Hastings, who was under consideration as a bride for Ivan the Terrible of Russia. On June 18, 1584, Katherine was living in her husband's house in Leicester when her brother, the earl of Leicester, stopped there for the night on his way back from a visit to the baths at Buxton. He left at 5 AM the next morning. Katherine spent some time in the north where Huntingdon was president of the Council of the North, but had been ill and remained at Whitehall the last time he went to York. She was prostrate with grief when told of his death. Nevertheless, she returned to court and was considered one of the queen's closest friends during the last years of her reign. During the reign of James I, she took charge of the small daughters of her nephew, Robert Sidney, while he and his wife were in the Netherlands. She died at Chelsea and was buried there in the parish church. Biography: Oxford DNB entry under "Hastings [née Dudley], Katherine." Portrait: In 1599, Frances Powlett, an Essex gentlewoman, widowed and a recusant, owned a portrait of Katherine Dudley.
KATHERINE DUDLEY (d. 1674)
Katherine Dudley was one of seven daughters of Robert Dudley (August 7, 1574-September 6, 1649), illegitimate son of the earl of Leicester by Douglas Howard, and Alice Leigh of Stoneleigh, Warwickshire (1579-January 22, 1669). Dudley deserted his wife and daughters to run off to Italy with Elizabeth Southwell in 1605. He had inherited Temple Balsall, Warwickshire from his uncle, Ambrose Dudley, in 1590, and it passed to Katherine and her sister Anne (d.1663), widow of Sir Robert Holbourne. Katherine married Sir Richard Leveson of Trentham Hall, Staffordshire (1598-1661). She wrote her will in 1668, adding codicils in 1670, 1671, and 1673. As she had no children, she left bequests to the hospital, created a free school, and established a foundation to teach children to care for older people that still exists today. Portraits: 1625 by Cornelius Jansen; effigy on monument with her husband.
see LETTICE KNOLLYS
see MARGARET AUDLEY
MARY or MARGARET
see MARY or MARGARET CAVENDISH
MARY DUDLEY (1531-August 9, 1586)
Mary Dudley was the daughter of John Dudley, duke of Northumberland (1504-x.August 22,1553) and Jane Guildford (1509-January 15, 1555). She was educated with her brothers, having among her tutors Roger Ascham and John Dee. She wrote poetry as a young woman. On March 29, 1551, she was married to Sir Henry Sidney (June 20, 1529-May 5, 1586). When her father attempted to put Lady Jane Grey on the throne instead of Mary Tudor, Mary Sidney was sent to fetch Lady Jane to Syon House where she was told of her great good fortune. Mary remained with Queen Jane throughout her brief reign. After the failure of the coup, Mary was allowed to return to her husband, who was pardoned for his role in the attempt on July 21. Sir Henry’s father obtained for them the confiscated Dudley property of Penshurst and there the couple made their home. Mary’s son, Philip Sidney, was born November 30, 1554. His godfather was King Philip II. Mary’s other children were Margaret (1556-1558), Elizabeth (October 1560-February 1567), Mary (1561-1621), Robert (November 19,1563-1626), Ambrosia (1565-1575), and Thomas (March 25,1569-July 26,1595). Under Elizabeth I, Mary Sidney was at court as one of her ladies and nursed the queen through her bout of smallpox in October 1562. Mary subsequently caught the disease herself and was left horribly scarred by it. Thereafter, it is said, she always wore a mask in public. When her husband was Lord Deputy of Ireland, Mary was with him briefly, but soon returned to England. She had rooms at court but spent most of her time at her house near Paul’s Wharf in London or at Ludlow Castle. Biography: Oxford DNB entry under "Sidney [née Dudley], Mary." Portraits: Two portraits identified as Mary Dudley Sidney exist, one by Hans Eworth at Wilton House and the other by Willaim Scrots at Petworth.
see THEODOSIA HARINGTON
see WINIFRED RICH
AGNES DUFFORD or
Agnes Dufford or Duffield was the daughter of William Duffield. She married first William Pykerell and second, in 1513, Peter Cheke (1477-January 30, 1529/30). Both were bedells at Cambridge University. Agnes was a vintner in St. Mary’s Parish, Cambridge, in her own right, and she continued to run her wine shop in her second widowhood. She had one son, John Pykerell (1498/9-1539) by her first marriage and one son and five daughters by Cheke, including Anne (1512-1557), John (June 16, 1514-September 13, 1557), Mary (c.1520-February 22, 1543/4), and Magdalen (d.1562+). John became a royal tutor. Mary married William Cecil, later Lord Burghley, and Agnes’s grandson, Thomas Cecil, inherited that title in 1598.
CHRISTINA DUKE (d.1608)
Christina Duke was the daughter and heir of Richard Duke of London and Otterton, Devon (d. September 8, 1572) and Elizabeth Franke (d. before 1562). She married George Brooke, one of the younger sons of Lord Cobham (January 27, 1533-c.1570) and is mentioned in the will of her mother-in-law, Anne Bray, Lady Cobham, in 1558. Lady Cobham left money to Christina to pay for nursing her baby, Elizabeth, who had been born at Cobham on June 15, 1558. Christina had four other children with Brooke: Anne, Duke (1563-1606), Peter, and Charles (c.1568-1610). Brooke was abroad, in Germany and Spain, in 1561-2. In April 1562, Christina's father remarried, taking as his second wife the twice-widowed Joan Hoby (Hobby/Halby). Her previous husbands were William Pantin of London and John Sprint of Bristol (d.c.1558). When Richard Duke died, letters of administration were issued to his widow on September 10,1 573, but on September 13, 1573, new letters of administration were issued, this time jointly, to the widow and to Christina, who by then was married to Gregory Sprint of Templecombe, Somerset (d.1608+), her stepmother's son by her second marriage. According to Sprint's entry in the History of Parliament, his marriage was arranged by Joan' s "subtle drift and device" and by it Sprint gained an income of £200 a year in land and 1000 marks worth of goods. In 1575, Christina was said to be pregnant but there is no record of a surviving child. Her second husband was litigious, engaging in lawsuits against the Duke family and his mother's fourth husband, Roger Gifford. From 1577 until 1593, he was engaged in a feud with Christina's sons, Duke and Peter Brooke. She supported her sons, even when they attacked her husband both in court and in person. In 1592, Sprint was outlawed and his goods seized. He was still living when Christina died but the date of his death is uncertain.
see JOAN HOBY
see ANNE LEGH
DEBORAH DUNCH (1586-c.1659)
Deborah Dunch was the daughter of Walter Dunch of Avebury, Wiltshire (1552-1594) and Deborah Pilkington (1564-1594+), the daughter of an Anglican bishop. She was christened on April 3, 1586 at St. Giles’s Church in Avebury. On January 20, 1606, at St. Mary Aldermary, London, she married Henry Moody of Garsdon Manor, Wiltshire (c.1582-April 23, 1629). He was later knighted and still later (1622), created a baronet by King James I and VI. They had two children, Henry (February 7, 1607-1650+) and Catherine (1608-1627+). After ten years of widowhood, Lady Moody made the decision to leave England for the colony of Massachusetts Bay in New England. She settled first in Salem, where she had a small house, but was in Lynn by 1640, where she was granted 400 acres. In 1641, she purchased another house and 900 acres of land in neighboring Swampscott. By 1643, however, her religious beliefs, particularly her denial that the baptism of infants was ordained by God, caused her to be fined, excommunicated, and evicted from Massachusetts Bay. John Winthrop said of her that she was "a wise and anciently religious woman" but he did not want her to stay in his colony. With other like-minded individuals, she went first to Providence, then to New Haven, and finally into Dutch territory, where she received a patent in 1645 for 7000 acres that included the present day Gravesend (Brooklyn) and Coney Island, New York. The home she built there was the sturdiest in the settlement and the only one to survive an Indian attack. It went on to become the site of the first Quaker meeting in 1657. Deborah died at some point between December 1654 and May 1659. For more details of her life see Carole Chandler Waldrup, Colonial Women (1999).
see MARY BARNES; MARY CROMWELL
see BENNET FOLJAMBE
CATHERINE DUNN (d. before 1544)
Catherine Dunn was the daughter of Lewis Dunn or Dunne of Badland. As a child of eleven, she was betrothed to Edmund Vaughan, age nine. When Edmund came of age, "there was a divorce lawfully between them according to the Ecclesiastical Laws." Catherine later married Richard Blyke (Bleak/Bleck/Blike) of Radnorshire (d.1557), a servant of Bishop Rowland Lee, bringing lands and tenements in Radnor to the marriage. They had one daughter, Dorothy. Some five years after Catherine died, her cousin, Peter Dunn of Berkshire, challenged Blyke's right to keep Catherine's Radnor properties. He brought suit in Chancery claiming that he was her heir because she had never been legally married to Blyke and their daughter was illegitimate. His argument was that Edmund Vaughan had still been living at the time they were wed. Needless to say, Blyke fought the suit and defended his late wife and their daughter's legitimacy.
ELEANOR DUTTON (c.1484-June 1522+)
Eleanor Dutton was the daughter of Peter or Piers Dutton of Hatton, Cheshire (c.1465-before 1502) and Elizabeth Fouleshurst. She married Randall Brereton of Malpas, Cheshire (1467-June 1530) c.1502. Their children were Randall (d.1533), Richard (d.c.1556), John (c.1542), Thomas (d.1511), Peter, Roger, William (c.1507-x. May 17, 1536), Robert (d.1566+), Urian (c.1510-March 19, 1578), Eleanor, Jane, Anne, and Elizabeth (c.1505-November 30, 1545+). Portrait: effigy at Malpas.
see JANE ASTON
JACQUINETTA DUTWITE (c.1550-1611)
Jacquinetta, Jacqueline, or Jaklin Dutwite was the daughter of James Dutwite (d.1591), resident in the immigrant enclave of St. Martin le Grand at the time of his death. She was probably born in France. She married Thomas Vautrollier (d. July 1587), a Huguenot refugee from Troyes, in the French province of Champagne. He had set up as a printer in London by 1558. He received letters of denization on March 9, 1562 and was admitted to the Stationer’s Company in 1564. He lived and worked in the Blackfriars section of London and records there list the births of Simon, Thomas (d.1608), Daniel, and Manassie (Manassas) Vautrollier between 1570 and 1587. The Vautrolliers also had a son named James. In 1580 and 1586, while Vautrollier was in Edinburgh, his wife ran the business in London. After he died, it would not have been unusual for her to take over as printer. Many wives of printers did just that. She was allowed to finish an impression he had begun and print one book, but then an order was issued, dated March 4,1588, by the Court of Assistants. It reads, with spelling modernized, "Mrs. Vautrollier, late wife of Thomas Vautrollier, deceased, shall not hereafter print any manner of book or books whatsoever, as well by reason that her husband was no printer at the time of his decease, as also by the decrees set down in the Star Chamber she is debarred from the same." Alice Clark, in her Working Life of Women in the Seventeenth Century, suggests that this was because the business had already been transferred to a daughter, also named Jacquinetta. According to her, this explains why records show Jacquinetta Vautrollier printing several more books in 1588, although these may also have been projects left unfinished at Vautrollier's death. Richard Field (November 1561-November 1624), admitted to the Stationer's Company on February 6, 1587, married Jaklin Vautrollier on January 12, 1589. Although some sources call her Vautrollier's daughter, she was more likely to have been his widow. Some sources also say Field was Vautrollier's apprentice. Technically, he was apprenticed to George Bishop, but he served the first six of seven years of his apprenticeship in Vautrollier's printing shop. A son, Richard Field, was born to Jacquinetta in 1590. In about 1600, Field moved from Blackfriars to the parish of St. Michael in Wood Street at the sign of the Splayed Eagle. He was a prominent member of the Stationer’s Company. Jacquinetta was probably the "Field's wife" who was buried in Blackfriars on March 9, 1611. After Field's death his widow, Jane, by whom he had three sons and two daughters, was permitted to continue printing books but after a short time sold out to one of Field’s apprentices.
JOAN DUWES (d.1538) (maiden name unknown)
Although she is listed as a member of Mary Tudor's household in 1533, little is known about Joan Duwes other than that she was the wife of Giles Duwes or Dewes (d. April 12, 1535) a lute player, French tutor, and author of An Introduction for to Lerne to Rede, to Pronounce, and to Speke French Trewly (c.1533), and other works. Duwes was employed from the 1490s to teach the children of Henry VII. He also tutored Henry VIII's daughter, Mary Tudor, and Henry Courtenay, who was later marquess of Exeter. Duwes and his wife had four children, three of them named after the royal children: Henry, Arthur, Gwylliam, and Margaret. From April 1506, Duwes was also the royal librarian. Young Arthur Duwes entered the royal household as a lute player in 1515 and later taught the king's illegitimate son, Henry Fitzroy, how to play that instrument. Duwes frequently appears in records as "Master Giles Luter." In 1533, Joan Duwes was appointed as one of Princess Mary's gentlewomen, although it must be noted that, at that time, Anne Boleyn was queen and Mary was out of favor and considered illegitimate. Duwes made his will on December 20, 1534, mentioning his wife "Jhone," but leaving his musical instruments to his sons Arthur and Gwylliam. Princess Mary's Privy Purse expenses for January 1538 include the gift of a frontlet to "Mistress Colson sometime Mistress Giles," which seems to indicate that Joan remarried.
FRANCES DYER (d. before 1603)
Frances Dyer was the daughter of Thomas Dyer of Weston, Somerset (d. June 14, 1565) and Frances Darcy. She married, as his second wife, Sir John Stawell of Cothelstone, Somerset (d. 1603), who had divorced his first wife after a long court battle and a large bribe not to contest his new marriage (see MARY PORTMAN). Their pre-nuptial settlement is dated April 10, 1572. They had one son, a second Sir John Stawell (d.1603/4). Portrait: effigy on tomb at Cothelstone.
see MARGARET à BARROW
JANE DYLLYCOTES (d.1605)
Jane Dyllycotes's parentage is unknown. She is recorded in most places simply as a French woman or a Huguenot. A manuscript cited by Alexander Balloch Grosart in Occasional Issues of Unique or Very Rare Books calls her Jane Jerrard (Gerard?) and says she was born in Anjou, but gives no source for this information. What we do know is that on March 20, 1582, she married Richard Barnes, bishop of Durham (d. August 24, 1587) at Durham Castle. She was his second wife. On September 30, 1597, she took as her second husband cleric Leonard Pilkington (1527-August 1599), whose brother had been Barnes's predecessor as bishop of Durham. She had no children by either husband. She was buried June 20, 1605 in Durham, near the burial place of Bishop Barnes.
MARGARET DYMOKE (c.1490-1550)
Margaret Dymoke was the daughter of Sir Robert Dymoke of Scrivelsby, Lincolnshire (c.1461-April 15,1545) and Jane (or Anne) Sparrow. She married Sir Richard Vernon of Haddon, Derbyshire (1477-1517) in about 1507 and was the mother of a son, George (1508-1567) and a daughter, Elizabeth. When she was left a wealthy widow, Cardinal Wolsey advocated a match with Sir William Tyrwhitt, but Margaret accepted Sir William Coffyn of Porthledge, Devon (c.1492-December 8, 1538). Margaret attended Catherine of Aragon at the Field of Cloth of Gold in 1520 and was at court with her second husband, who was master of horse to both Anne Boleyn and Jane Seymour. Margaret was one of the gentlewomen sent to wait (and spy) upon Anne Boleyn in the Tower. Some accounts give the name as “Mistress Cosyns” but this is a mistake for Coffyn. In Jane Seymour’s household, Margaret was a lady of the bedchamber. She wrote to Lord Cromwell from Standon, Hertfordshire to announce her second husband had died, "full of God’s marks over all his body." She was his sole executor and inherited all his leases and goods. In 1539, she married Sir Richard Manners of Garendon, Leicestershire (1490-February 9, 1551), by whom she may have had a son, John. During this marriage she lived primarily at Haddon Hall. Biography: Oxford DNB entry under "Coffin, Sir William." NOTE: the DNB gives her mother's name as Anne Sparrow. Portrait: effigy at St. Bartholomew Church, Tong, Shropshire.
see MARGARET WOGON
MARY DYMOKE (d.1582+)
Mary Dymoke or Dymmock was probably the daughter of Sir Robert Dymoke of Scrivelsby, Lincolnshire (1531-September 12, 1580) and Bridget Clinton (d.1591?), although some sources say she married a man named John Shute, c.1585, without giving further particulars. A Mary Dymmock was a lady in waiting to Queen Elizabeth, a position she might have been appointed to by virtue of being the granddaughter of Edward Fiennes de Clinton, 1st earl of Lincoln, by his first wife. If she was the daughter of Sir Robert, her parents were arrested for recusancy in July 1580 and her father died in prison. In March 1582, the former lady in waiting, together with Elizabeth Vaux, middle daughter of William, 3rd baron Vaux of Harrowden, was smuggled out of England by Robert Alfield, servant of the Jesuit, Father Robert Persons. She became a nun, joining the Poor Clares at Rouen.
MARY DYMOKE or DYMOCK
see MARY HUSSEY
JOANNA DYNGLEY (d.1547+)
Nothing is known about Joanna Dyngley's parents, although a John Dyngley received an annuity of ten marks on May 29, 1516, "in token of the king's regard." It is extremely tempting to wonder if Joan has been mistread as John, but the date seems much too early. Joan or Joanna Dyngley is said to have been a royal laundress. Her natural or "base" daughter, Ethelreda or Audrey Malte (d.c.1556), was raised as the child of John Malte, Henry VIII’s tailor, but was rumored to be Henry’s bastard. Joanna was married to a Mr. Dobson by the time Malte made his will on September 10, 1546. It refers to her as "Joane Dingley, now wife of one Dobson" and as "Joane Dyngley, otherwise Joane Dobson." He left her £20. Joanna does not seem to have played any part in her daughter's life and the identity of Mr. Dobson remains elusive. The notoriously speculative The Other Tudors: Henry VIII’s Mistresses and Bastards by Philippa Jones, offers an interesting if unsupportable theory about Joanna's identity, complete with a solution to another minor mystery—the identity of the mistress who so infuriated Anne Boleyn that she tried to send her away from court. Jones's candidate is Jane or Joan Moore (d.1558+), daughter of Sir John Moore of Douklin, Douklen, Dunclent, or Dunkelyn, Worcestershire (d.1535) and Eleanor Milbourne. This Jane Moore was married three times. Her first husband was Michael Ashfield of Northlatche Manor, Gloucestershire. Her second was a man named James Dingley. Jones suggests that Dingley had recently died when his widow began an affair with the king c.1534 and suggests that Jane was the unnamed mistress the king refused to send away from court in that year, a woman sympathetic to Princess Mary. Jones then gives Eltheleda's birth date as June 23, 1535 and goes on to say that, by 1546, Jane Moore had married Thomas Parker of Notgrove, Gloucestershire (d.1558). They had three sons, Edmund, Thomas, and Michael, and a daughter. Where did the name Dobson come from in Malte’s will? Jones explains this away as a mistake by the person who copied the will, misreading "alias Dobson" as a reference to a husband when it was, in fact, a reference to the Moore family's lands.
EDITH DYNHAM or
Edith Dynham or Dinham was the daughter of John Dynham of Hartland, Devonshire (d.1458) and Joan Arches or Archer (c.1410-1497). She was the third wife of Thomas Fowler of Foxley, Buckinghamshire (c.1435-c.1510), who was an esquire of the body to King Edward IV and supported Richard III. He was pardoned in 1485. In spite of her husband's Yorkist sympathies, Edith later served as a waiting gentlewoman to Margaret Beaufort, countess of Richmond and Derby, the mother of Henry VII. She was one of those given "manteletts and kercheffes" for Henry’s funeral in 1509. The countess died soon afterward, on June 29, 1509. Edith
and her husband were buried in Christ Church, Cambridge. Portrait: brass armorial effigy.
ELIZABETH DYNHAM (1449-October 19, 1516)
Elizabeth Dynham was the daughter of John Dynham or Dinham of Devon and Cornwall (1405/6-January 25, 1458) and Joan Arches (d.1497) and one of the co-heirs of her brother, John, 1st Lord Dynham (d.1501). She was married three times, first to Fulke Bourchier, 2nd baron Fitzwarine (October 25, 1445-September 18, 1479), by whom she had four children, John, 1st earl of Bath (July 20, 1470-April 30, 1539), Joan, Elizabeth (1474-1557), and William. Her second husband was Sir John Sapcote of Elton, Huntingdonshire (d. January 5, 1501), by whom she had one son, Richard (1483-July 9, 1542). Her third husband was Sir Thomas Brandon (1470-January 27, 1510). She was probably not married to Brandon long, as he mentions her in his will only in connection with a bequest to the Augustinian Friars in London for a "perpetual memory to be had of the Lord Marquess Berkley and the Lady Marquess, late my wife [his first wife, Anne Fiennes, who died in 1497], my Lady my wife [Elizabeth Dynham], [and] my brother Sir Robert Brandon." The will was written January 11, 1509/10 and proved May 11, 1510. There are no other bequests to Elizabeth, although he leaves gowns to two sisters and two nieces and a house in Southwark and land in Norfolk and Suffolk to the widowed "Lady Jane Gylford” (Joan Vaux). His nephew, Charles Brandon, was his principal heir. The logical conclusion is that Elizabeth was already well provided for in their marriage contract, having no doubt inherited considerable estates from her two previous husbands. She was, through Fulke Bourchier, the grandmother of Anne Stanhope, duchess of Somerset and, through Sir John Sapcote, the great-great grandmother of Anne Sapcote, countess of Bedford. Elizabeth was buried in the Greyfriars, London
see ELIZABETH WILLOUGHBY
see JANE or JOAN ORMOND
text ©2008-15 Kathy Lynn Emerson (all rights reserved)