Kathy Lynn Emerson
to update and correct
her very out-of-date
Wives and Daughters: The Women of Sixteenth-Century England (1984)
NOTE: this document exists only in electronic format
and is ©2008-13 Kathy Lynn Emerson (all rights reserved)
DORCAS ECCLESTON (1537-September 1, 1599)
Dorcas Eccleston (Egleston, Ecclestone) was the daughter of John Eccleston and his wife Margery (d. 1571). Eccleston is variously described as a gentleman of Lancashire and as a London grocer. It is possible he was both. Dorcas married Sir Richard Martin (1533/4-1617) who was Lord Mayor of London twice and served as master of the mint. They had five sons, including John and Richard (d.1616), and a daughter, Dorcas. Dorcas was the translator of a French catchism, a religious radical involved in illegal printing of religious works, and a supporter of French and Scottish ministers in London. Biography: Oxford DNB entry under “Martin [née Eccleston], Dorcas.” Portrait: with her husband on a silver medal, 1562; sketch based on this medal in Herbert Norris's Tudor Costume and Fashion.
ANNE EDGECUMBE (d. 1613+)
Anne Edgecumbe was the daughter of Sir Richard Edgecumbe of Mount Edgecumbe, Cornwall (c.1499-February 1, 1562) and Elizabeth Tregian. In 1580, she married Hugh Dowriche (1552/3-1598), rector of Lapford and later of Honiton. Their children were Elkana, Walter, Mary (b.1587), Elizabeth, Anne (b.1589), and Hugh (b.1594). Her The French Historie (1589) was dedicated to her brother, Piers. She also contributed verses to The Jaylor’s Conversion (1596), written by her husband. Biography: Oxford DNB entry under “Dowriche [née Edgecumbe], Anne.”
CATHERINE EDGECUMBE (d.1570+)
Catherine Edgecumbe was the daughter of Sir Richard Edgecumbe of Mount Edgecumbe, Cornwall (c.1499-February 1, 1562)and Elizabeth Tregian. In around 1557, she married Henry Champernowne of Modbury, Devon (c.1538-May 28, 1570). They had two sons and four daughters: Richard (c.1558-1622), Elizabeth (c.1558-June 14, 1617), Arthur (c.1560-1599), Mary (c.1562-February 3, 1611/12), Margaret, and Bridget. After Champernowne was killed fighting for the Huguenots, the queen of Navarre wrote to Queen Elizabeth of England, in July 1570, asking her to help his widow and children. Catherine was sole executrix of his will, which was written in October 1568 and proved in 1570. The inquisition post mortem was held October 4, 1570.
see CATHERINE ST. JOHN
see MARGARET LUTTRELL
Margaret Edgecumbe was the daughter of Piers Edgecumbe of Mount Edgecumbe, Cornwall (c.1536-January 4, 1607/8) and Margaret Luttrell or Lutterell (c.1538-1580+). At eighteen she became a maid of honor to Queen Elizabeth and was highly regarded by Her Majesty. She was known to possess "great beauty and parts." In 1583, when Margaret married Sir Edward Denny (1544 or 1547-February 12, 1599/1600), the queen granted them a twenty-one-year lease on Rectory Manor House, where Margaret lived after she was widowed and where she once entertained King Charles I. Denny died in Ireland of "a deadly sickness in his country's service." Margaret complained that he received nothing but a few sinecures for this service, although she somehow found the funds to erect a monument to him in Waltham Abbey. She attributed the queen's indifference to her poverty to Denny's loyalty to the earl of Essex. In 1600, she petitioned against Edward Darcy's attempts to obtain part of the proceeds of the sale of her late husband's office, writing that Denny had little need "to suck this small portion of her Majesty's favor from the hungry mouths of my children." After 1642, she shared her home with her grandson's widow and seven great grandchildren. Margaret and Edward Denny had seven sons and three daughters: Arthur (1584-July 4, 1619), Francis, Henry (1595-1658), Anthony (d. yng.), Anthony (1592-1662), Thomas, Charles (d. December 29, 1635), Elizabeth (b.1586), Honora (d.yng.), and Marie (d. November 29, 1678). Portraits: portrait; effigy erected in 1600 in the Church of the Holy Cross and St. Lawrence, Waltham Abbey, Essex.
see WINIFRED ESSEX
see DOROTHY LYTCOTT
see SARAH HARINGTON
see DOROTHY LIDCOTT
see ELIZABETH BLEDLOW
FRANCES EDMONDS (c.1512-1601)
Frances Edmonds was the daughter of Andrew Edmonds of Cressing Temple, Essex (c. 1484-June 23, 1523) and Elizabeth Bledlow (c.1490-October 25,1556) and the sister and coheir of Christopher Edmonds of Lewknor, Oxfordshire (1521/2-1595/6). She was a stepdaughter of John, Lord Williams of Thame and half sister of Marjorie Williams, Lady Norris. She is said to have been a maid of honor to Elizabeth Tudor before Elizabeth became queen, but she had married John D’Oyly of Greenland House, Hambledon, Buckinghamshire (c.1508-1569) by 1538, making this doubtful. She probably met Elizabeth when she was on her way to Woodstock in 1554 and stopped at Rycote, home of Lady Norris, for a night. Frances's children were Robert of Chiselhampton (c.1539-July 1577), John (c.1541-March 1623), Dorothy, Phyllis, Francis, Thomas (1548-1603), and Henry (d.c.1627). In 1560, she and two of her half sisters were official mourners at the funeral of Amye Robsart, Lady Dudley. Her jointure and that of her eldest son's widow encumbered the estate for many years.
see MARY CLERKE
see AGNES BLEWITT
ALICE EGERTON (c.1454-1534)
Alice Egerton was the daughter of Hugh Egerton of Wrinehill (1426-1505) and Margaret Dutton and was said to be related to King Henry VII. She married Sir William Chetwynd of Ingestre, Staffordshire (c.1450-July 3, 1494), who was one of the king's gentlemen-ushers. The Chetwynds lived at Alspath. On the day of his death, Sir William was lured out of his house by a letter, supposedly from the county sheriff, asking him to meet with him at five the next morning. While passing over Tixall Heath en route to this meeting, Chetwynd was set upon by twenty armed men and murdered. Alice later charged that Sir Humphrey Stanley of Pipe had set the whole thing up and that his servants were the murderers. She further deposed that Stanley came to her husband's wake to gloat. He was dressed for hunting and claimed he’d only been passing that way by chance, but there had been no deer in the area for the last eleven years. Later historians accepted that Stanley was responsible but he was never tried for his crime. Alice had the following children: William (1477-1547), Philip (1478-1525), Thomas, Joane, Margery, Alice, and possibly Elizabeth.
see ALICE SPENCER
DOROTHY EGERTON (1565-April 4,1639)
Dorothy Egerton was the only legitimate child of Sir Richard Egerton of Ridley, Cheshire (d. November 1579) by his wife Mary Grosvenor (d. March 26, 1599). Dorothy married first, in 1577, Richard Brereton of Tatton and Worsley, Lancashire (d. December 18, 1598), by whom she had one child who died young. She inherited the manor of Worsley for life but other properties and the reversion of Worsley were left to her half brother, Sir Thomas Egerton, later Lord Chancellor. Her second husband was a widower with children, Sir Peter Legh of Lyme, Cheshire and Bradley Hall, Lancashire (c.1563-February 17, 1636). They married on March 11, 1605. W. K. Jordan, in The Social Institutions of Lancashire, identifies this same Dorothy as Dame Dorothy Leigh of Worsley who, in 1638, gave £400 to set up a trust to pay for a minister for the chapel of Ellenbrook, so that the bishop would have no hand in his selection. Her will reveals an interest in coal mining. She left 10s to each of the workmen in her coal pits and the cannel pits in Middle Hulton. She was buried in Eccles Church with her second husband. Portraits: A. L. Rowse in Sex and Society in Shakepeare’s Age describes two portraits of Dorothy at Lyme: In one “the younger-looking face is sad and numb; she is all in black, no jewelry, hand on the Book. The second shows a middle-aged lady bedizened with jewelry, chains of pearls down to her waist, jewels and ornaments in her hat, beneath which is a very wide-awake face; and, in place of the Bible, one of her special breed of monkeys.” The first, by Zuccaro was mislabeled the queen of Bohemia. It was painted during her first widowhood. The second, called in a history of Lyme the “kit-cat” portrait, is c. 1615 by Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger.
see ELIZABETH MORE
MARY, and VERE EGERTON
Elizabeth, Mary (d.1669), and Vere Egerton, shown in this portrait painted c.1601, were the daughters of Sir Thomas Egerton (c.1574-August 1599) and Elizabeth Venables. Elizabeth, the eldest, married John Dutton (d.1611). Mary wed Thomas Leigh, 1st Baron Leigh of Stoneleigh (1595-February 22, 1672) on November 11, 1610 and was the mother of five sons and six daughters, the eldest born in 1614. Among them were Elizabeth (d.1688), Vere, Thomas (1616-April 1662), and Charles Leigh. Mary was buried at Stoneleigh. Vere Egerton, the third daughter, married William Booth (d. April 26, 1636) in May 1619 and was the mother of Thomas (June 21, 1620-January 3, 1632), George (December 18, 1622-August 8, 1684), Catherine (May 11, 1624-1667), William (b. February 14, 1625), Nathaniel (April 26, 1627-1692), and Charles (July 6, 1628-1634). Portrait: Vere Egerton c.1619.
see FRANCES STANLEY
see MARGARET BASSETT
see MARY GROSVENOR
see ELIZABETH AGLIONBY
see ELINOR NEWTON
ELIZABETH I (September 7,1533-March 24,1603)
Elizabeth Tudor was the daughter of Henry VIII (June 28,1491-January 28,1547) and Anne Boleyn (c.1507-May 19,1536) and England’s queen from 1558 until 1603. There are too many biographies of her available for me to need to say much about her here. In my personal opinion, however, she was indeed “the virgin queen.” There was very little privacy to allow her to be otherwise. In addition, what happened to her mother and her stepmother, Catherine Howard, would surely have left her with a deep-rooted fear of sexual intimacy. Biographies: too many to name. Portraits: ditto
OF YORK (February
11, 1465-February 11, 1503)
Elizabeth of York was the eldest daughter of King Edward IV (1442-1483) and Elizabeth Woodville (1437-1492). Although her parents’ marriage was declared invalid by Richard III, she was considered the Yorkist heir after the disappearance and probable death of her brothers and the death if King Richard. She married Henry VII (1457-1509), who won the throne from Richard in battle. His claim was also tainted by irregular marriages but their union united the warring factions and led to relative peace. Their children were Arthur, Prince of Wales (September 19, 1486-April 2, 1502), Margaret (November 29, 1489-October 18, 1541), Henry VIII (June 28, 1491-January 28, 1547), Elizabeth (July 12, 1492-September 4, 1495), Mary (March 18, 1495-June 25, 1533), Edmund (February 21, 1499-June 12, 1500), Katherine (February 2, 1503-February 18, 1503) and one other child who died as an infant. Elizabeth of York died shortly after giving birth to her eighth child. Biography: Nancy Lenz Harvey, Elizabeth of York; Oxford DNB entry under “Elizabeth [Elizabeth of York].” Portraits: c.1502; funeral effigy; tomb effigy by Pietro Torrigiano.
see ALICE WILKES
Margaret Ellerbek was the daughter of Nicholas Ellerbek of Sutes or Sotes Manor in Standon, Hertfordshire (d.1472) and Ann Baud (who married John Digges as her second husband). Margaret's first husband was William Tendring (d.c.1500), by whom she had two daughters, one of them named Margaret. Widowed, she was the "minor Hertfordshire heiress" who married Francis Marzen, a Breton in the service of King Henry VII. Margaret was also at court, first in the household of Elizabeth of York and later serving Queen Catherine of Aragon. At age fifty-seven, she was reportedly considering marriage to Richard Audley (d.1531), son of Sir John of Swaffham, Norfolk, but Audley married Catherine Scrope instead and she survived him. Margaret was still Margaret Marzen, widow, in 1534. Her married surname is sometimes found as Marston.
ANNE ELLERKER (d.1513+)
Anne Ellerker, Lady Rokeby, is the mystery woman of The Plumpton Correspondence. A widow, she apparently lived at Plumpton until her death, although in what capacity is unclear, as are the exact years of her residence in that often troubled household. Three letters addressed to her are included along with letters to and from members of the Plumpton family, but they serve to deepen the mystery rather than clarify it. They are dated by month and day but not year. She is addressed as "Dame Anne Rokesby" by one letter writer, giving us her first name, and a history of the Rokeby family contains the information that Richard Rokeby, third son of Ralph Rokeby of Mortham, Yorkshire, married the daughter of an Ellerker of Risby. This Richard Rokeby was a servant of Lord Scrope of Bolton and fought for him at Flodden (1513). Rokeby and Anne Ellerker had a son, Thomas. One of the letters, from Marmaduke Constable, refers to "your son, Newport," which could mean either that she had a son by another marriage to a man with that surname or that her daughter married a man named Newport. We know she had a daughter because the third letter, from one Ann Abott, asks her to "let not my mistress, your daughter, wit of it, for then she will never trust my husband nor me." Mistress Abott had apparently held back some money her husband was supposed to take to Lady Rokeby from her daughter, having bills of her own to pay, and is suggesting that Lady Rokeby consider this a loan to be repaid before Lammas. It is not clear who Ann Abott was, but the authors of the other two letters are identified by the editor of The Plumpton Correspondence as Sir Robert Constable of Holme and Flamborough (1478-1537) and his brother, Sir Marmaduke Constable of Everingham (1480-1545).
ANNE ELMBRIDGE (1504-May 7, 1577)
Anne Elmbridge was the daughter of Thomas Elmbridge (also spelled Ellenbridge, Elynbrugge, Elingbridge, and Ellingbridge) of the manor of Chaldon in Surrey (d. March 26, 1507) and Joan Overton. Anne married Sir John Dannet (Dannett, etc), possibly as early as 1520, and they took livery of her lands in Surrey and Worcestershire in 1525. In 1522, she was listed as a patroness of Chaldon church. On August 18, 1525, the list of attendants to accompany Princess Mary to Wales included the names "Mrs. Anne Dannet" (or Darrell or Darnell) and "Mrs. Dannet." Mrs. was the abbreviation for mistress and did not necessarily denote marital status, but it is possible that "Mrs. Anne Dannet" was Anne Elmbridge Dannet. The household was dispersed a few years later. Anne and John were the parents of Leonard (d.1582), Sir John (d.c.1607), Gerard, Thomas, Jane, and Mary. Anne was buried in Thornfrith, Merstham, Surrey on May 30, 1577.
see ALICE ST. JOHN
ANNE ELMES (d.1597+)
Anne Elmes was the daughter of George Elmes, probably of the Lilford, Northamptonshire family. She married first William Clopton (c.1550-1588), a third son of William Clopton of Kentwell (d.1562) and then, by 1597, a man named Norris. One online genealogy calls her "the wicked Anne" but without explanation. If she is the Dame Norris who died in 1600 in Warwick, her husband survived her and remarried. Possible portrait: sketch of an effigy in Trinity Church, Stratford-on-Avon in Herbert Norris Tudor Costume and Fashion, although Norris labels this Dame Anne Clopton, 1596.
MARGARET ELTER (c.1525-1553)
Margaret Elter or d’Elter was born in Guelders and educated in a convent in Mons, Hainault. In 1547, she joined the household of Jacques de Bourgonne, seigneur de Falais, in Basel. In February of that year, Anna de Tserclaes, to whom Margaret was related, had left that same household to marry John Hooper, an Englishman who returned home shortly thereafter and later became a bishop. In March 1548, in Strasbourg, Margaret married Francisco de Enzinas (d. December 30, 1552), a Spanish protestant. They, too, emigrated to England, at the urging of reformer Martin Bucer. Once there, Thomas Cranmer housed them temporarily at Lambeth Palace and then secured a temporary position for Enzinas at Cambridge, where Margaret's daughter Margarita was born in 1549. His presence at Cambridge was also due to the wish of Catherine Willoughby, duchess of Suffolk, that he tutor one of her sons. Enzinas decided to return to Strasbourg in November 1549, preferring printers there to those in England for publishing Spanish translations of Lucian, Livy, and Plutarch. At first, Margaret refused to go with him. The baby was sick and travel in winter was dangerous. The following June, however, she made the trip with her niece, Anna Elter, and little Margarita. A second daughter, Beatriz, was born in Strasbourg in 1551. The plague of 1552/3 killed first Enzinas and then Margaret, leaving their children to become wards of the city. The German reformer Philip Melanchthon offered to take one of them into his home in Wittenberg, but the city refused. Beatriz de Santa Cruz, a Catholic relative in Spain, then tried to gain custody of them, resulting in a legal battle that was still going on in 1566, at which time the girls were living in Flanders. Anna Elter, the cousin Margaret had brought with her to Strasbourg in 1550, worked to keep the children out of Catholic hands, especially after her July 1555 marriage to Guillaume Rabot de Salène, a cavalry officer. The marriage was arranged by no less a personage than the Elector Palatine.
see ELIZABETH BESELLES
see MARGARET à BARROW
KATHERINE EMMES (1570/1-December 1590)
Katherine Emmes was the daughter of William Emmes of St. Dunstan in the West, London (d.1583), a cordwainer, and an unnamed Dutch woman. At fifteen, in September 1586, she married Philip Stubbes the Puritan pamphleteer (c.1555-c.1610). After they married, they moved from St. Mary at Hill, London, to Burton upon Trent, Staffordshire, where Katherine died a few weeks after giving birth to a son, John, who was baptized on November 17, 1590. Stubbs’s next work was a life of his wife titled A Christal Glasse for Christian Women (1591), in which he idealized her as “a perfect paterne of true Christianitie.” This pamphlet proved even more popular than his earlier work, Anatomie of Abuses (1583).
ELIZABETH EMPSON (1490-1523)
Elizabeth Empson was the daughter of Richard Empson of Easton, Northamptonshire (c.1450-August 17, 1510) and his wife Jane. Empson was an advisor to Henry VII who was executed by Henry VIII at the start of his reign. Elizabeth married George Catesby of Ashby St. Ledgers, Northamptonshire (d. November 27, 1505) in 1496. Their children were Elizabeth, Jane, Audrey, William (1504-October 2, 1517), Richard (c.1505-March 8, 1552/3), and another daughter. She remarried on September 15, 1510, taking Sir Thomas Lucy of Charlecote, Warwickshire (1488-September 23, 1525) as her second husband. Their children were William (1511-1551), Anne, Radugund, Thomas, Edmund, and Barbara (b.c.1523). Sir Nicholas Harris Nicolas identifies her as the Elizabeth Catesby who was a gentlewoman to Queen Elizabeth of York in his Privy Purse Expenses of Elizabeth of York. She may also have served as a lady in waiting to Elizabeth of York's daughter, Mary Tudor, while Mary was in England. However, the Elizabeth Catesby, said to be the king's kinswoman, who went with Mary to France and received an annuity of 40 marks on June 30, 1515 for her service to Mary, Queen of the French, seems more likely to have been the eldest daughter of Elizabeth Empson and George Catesby.
MARIA ENRÍQUEZ de TOLEDO y GUZMÁN (d.1583)
Maria Enríquez de Toledo y Guzmán was the daughter of Diego Enríquez de Guzmán (or de Velasco), 3rd count of Alba de Liste, and his first wife, Aldonza Leonor Alvarez de Toledo y Zuniga. On April 27, 1529, she married her cousin, Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, 3rd duke of Alba (October 29, 1509-December 11, 1582). They had four children, Garcia (1530-1548), Beatriz (b.1534), Fadrique (1537-1583), and Diego (1542-1583). In On November 12, 1543, Maria and her husband were present at Salamanca at the marriage of Philip of Spain and his first wife, Mary of Portugal. In 1554, she traveled with her husband to England for Philip's marriage to Mary Tudor. Philip had instructed members of his entourage not to bring their wives, but several of them ignored him. Doña Heironima de Navarra and Doña Francisca de Cordova were not received by Queen Mary, but the duchess of Alba, as the highest ranking Spanish lady in England, was invited to court right after the wedding. Reportedly, neither lady would allow the other to take a lower seat with the end result that they both ended up sitting on the floor. There was no lodging available for the duchess at court, but she was housed outside the palace at royal expense. She did not have any direct influence with the English queen, but that did not stop Jane Guildford, duchess of Northumberland, from appealing to her on behalf of her imprisoned husband and sons. She must at least have been sympathetic, for Northumberland's widow remembered both the duke and duchess of Alba in her will in January 1555. Aside from her role as the duke's wife and the mother of his children, Maria was also a benefactress of the Carmelite order. In 1582, she requested the presence of Teresa of Avila at the convent she'd founded at Alba de Tormes, near Salamanca. Teresa endured terrible conditions on the journey and died. After she was buried at Alba, a series of miracles occurred. Maria's sister, Doña Bernardine de Toledo y Enríquez, who had been ill with a fever for some two months, touched one of Teresa's garments and immediately recovered her health.
MARGARET de ENZINAS
see MARGARET ELTER
ALICE ERLINGTON or ELRINGTON
see ALICE MIDDLETON
DOROTHY ERLINGTON or ELRINGTON
see DOROTHY SADLER
see DOROTHY SMITH
see ELIZABETH PIERREPOINT; ELIZABETH NORRIS
see ELIZABETH BABTHORPE
see MARGARET SANDYS
Winifred Essex was the daughter of Sir William Essex of Lambourn, Berkshire (c.1470-August 13, 1548) and Elizabeth Rogers (1476-before 1548). Some accounts say she married Richard Edgecumbe of Mount Edgecumbe and Cothele, Cornwall (c.1499-February 1, 1562) c.1531 and that she was at court as a lady of the Privy Chamber to Anne of Cleves and Catherine Howard and that she was the mother of all of Sir Richard's children, including Elizabeth, Peter (c.1536-January 4, 1608), Richard, Catherine, and Anne(d.1613+). However, the History of Parliament entry for Edgecumbe gives his four sons and four daughters to his second wife (m. c.1535), Elizabeth Tregian and none to Winifred, his third wife. Since Edgecumbe was not knighted until January 16, 1542, it is unlikely that Winifred was the Lady Edgecumbe who was a lady of the Privy Chamber (see CATHERINE ST. JOHN). If Elizabeth Tregian had eight children after 1535, Winifred would not even have been married to Edgecumbe yet in 1540-2. The only certainty is that she was his wife by 1548, when her father died.
see EMMA AYSCOUGH
ANNE ETTON (d. July 10, 1582)
Anne Etton was the daughter and heir of John Etton of Firsby, Lincolnshire and ___ Langton. She married John Copledike of Harrington, Lincolnshire (d. April 4, 1585). She seems to have died without issue, as her coheirs were her two aunts, Margaret and Alice Etton, daughters of the elder John Etton of Firsby (d. May 8, 1503) and Margaret Ashby (d.1526). Margaret married John Reed. Alice married first Richard Goodriche and second Thomas Bradley. Portrait: memorial brass in Harrington, Lincolnshire.
see BARBARA MERES
see MARGERY BOWES
see ELIZABETH PEPPARD
ELLYN EVYNGAR (d.c.1535) (maiden name unknown)
Ellyn Evyngar was the wife of Andrew Evyngar/Evanger (d.1533), a salter and merchant adventurer. Her husband was the son of John Evyngar (d.1496), a native of Brabant and a brewer. John left his widow, Jacomyn, a house and tenements in Antwerp for five years, after which they reverted to Andrew. Andrew and Ellyn had one son and six daughters, but all but one daughter, Elizabeth, appear to have died young. The family lived in the parish of St. Mary upon Hill at Billingsgate. In his will, Andrew left a beer house at Charing Cross with three tenements to his widow and the remainder of his property to their daughter, Elizabeth, by then the wife of Robert Lorde. Ellen appears to have died c.1535, but she is referred to in a grant dated 1548. Portrait: memorial brass in All Hallows Barking, London.
see FRANCES ROGERS
see ELIZABETH NEVILLE
text ©2008-13 Kathy Lynn Emerson (all rights reserved)