Kathy Lynn Emerson
to update and correct
her very out-of-date
Wives and Daughters: The Women of Sixteenth-Century England (1984)
NOTE: this document exists only in electronic format
and is ©2008-14 Kathy Lynn Emerson (all rights reserved)
see ROSE LOCKE
see ELIZABETH MAY
see JULIANA ARTHUR
see MARTHA THARPE
see AGNES WEBBE
According to the History of Parliament entry for Thomas Lewknor, this Anne Hill was not the daughter of Richard Hill of Hartley Wintney, Hampshire (c.1500-1539), wine merchant and master of Henry VIII's wine cellar, and Elizabeth Isley (1510-1592+). That Anne married first John Bellingham of Erlington (d. November 6, 1576) and second, as his second wife, Thomas Lewknor of Tangmere (and later of Selsey) Sussex (c.1538-July 1596). Around 1563, this Anne married John Ireland of St. Mildred, Bread Street (1531-June 25, 1615), a wealthy salter and first master of the Salter's Company. Their messuage in Bread Street was called the Two Black Boys and in the subsidy roll of 1582 Ireland's property was assessed at £60, a considerable sum. Their children, mentioned in John's will, were Hester, Elizabeth, Mary, Toby (d. before 1615), and Thomas. Online sources also list John, Rowland, and Wilson. In 1590, John and Anne were sued in the court of common pleas by Thomas Johnson over a debt owed to Johnson's mother-in-law, Alice Gittens. Johnson's wife, Katherine, had long regarded the Irelands as a second set of parents and believed that the loan had already been repaid but her husband insisted that they’d received private loans for as much or more from Alice Gittens over the years.
see DOROTHY LOCKE
(maiden name unknown)
According to Charlotte Merton's PhD dissertation The Women who served Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth: Ladies, Gentlewomen and Maids of the Privy Chamber, in 1590 Queen Elizabeth gave £200 to Elizabeth Hill, her second cousin, after Mrs. Hill's house burned down. Merton further states that there were chamber women related to both the queen and Mrs. Hill. She does not, however, identify this woman further and of the Hills with connections at court (see MARY HILL) the only two named Elizabeth had died by 1590.
see ELIZABETH ISLEY; ELIZABETH LOCKE or LOK
HILL (d. September
Joan Hill was the sister of John Hill of London. Her first husband was Richard Welles or Wellis (d.1505), a mercer, by whom she had several children including a son named Anthony. Her second husband, as his second wife, was John Chester (d. May 16, 1513), a draper. They had two sons, Sir William (c.1509-1595?) and Nicholas. Her third husband was John Milborne (d. April 5, 1536), a draper who was Lord Mayor of London in 1521-2. In 1515, she and her third husband, by whom she had no children, endowed a fellowship at St. Catherine's Hall, Cambridge. Joan was executor of the wills of all three of her husbands. Her own will was dated November 17, 1542. She was buried in St. Edmund, Lombard Street where her son, Sir William Chester, erected a monument to her in 1563.
see MARIA HEYMAN
MARY HILL (1532-November 30, 1616)
Mary Hill was the daughter of Richard Hill of Hartley Wintney, Hampshire (c.1500-1539), wine merchant and master of Henry VIII's wine cellar, and Elizabeth Isley (1510-1592+). By 1539, Mary's mother was trying to place her in the household of Elizabeth Tudor and according to the Oxford DNB ("Cheke, John"), she did join that household in 1546. Other sources place her, as a young girl, in the household of Anne Stanhope, countess of Hertford (later duchess of Somerset) and say it was there she met Sir John Cheke (June 16, 1514-September 13, 1557), tutor and close friend of King Edward VI. They were married on May 11, 1547. In the winter of 1549, Mary somehow displeased the duchess, prompting Cheke to write a letter of apology on January 27, 1549/1550. In it he tells the duchess that he has urged Mary to "be plain" and hopes that Mary's "honest nature" will "content" the duchess. He also blamed Mary's behavior on the fact that she was pregnant. Mary had three sons by Cheke, Henry (c.1548-1586), John (1549-1580), and Edward (1550-1563). When Mary Tudor became queen in 1554, Cheke fled the country, leaving his family behind. On April 4, he wrote from Calais to his friend, John Harington, asking him to look after Mary. In the spring of 1556, Cheke journeyed to Brussels at the invitation of Sir John Mason, Mary's stepfather and the queen's ambassador, and met Mary there. On May 15, Cheke was kidnapped and sent back to England to stand trial for heresy. He was in the Tower on June 1. On July 7, Mary was allowed to visit him and stay the night. When he was released, he went to live with a nephew by marriage, Peter Osborne, and died at Osborne's house. Widowed, Mary left her sons with Osborne to be raised. According to the DNB, she was left well-to-do, with plate valued at £666 13s. 4d., jewels worth £533 6s. 8d., and household goods worth £400. She also inherited the wardship of Thomas Barnardiston (c.1543-1619). Her second husband, married before December 14, 1558, was Henry MacWilliams (MacWilliam/Mackwilliam) of Stambourne Hall, Essex (c.1532-December 27, 1586), a gentleman at the court of Elizabeth Tudor, by whom she had Margaret (c.1560-1640), Susan (d.1616+), Ambrosia, Cassandra, Cecily (d.1627), and Henry (d.1599). Mary, who continued to be called Lady Cheke, was a gentlewoman of the Privy Chamber to Queen Elizabeth and received a number of valuable grants from the queen, including a grant with her husband of houses and a mansion called St. James, Westminster in 1576, becoming quite wealthy. At court in the late 1590s, there were two women named Lady Cheke (see KATHERINE OSBORNE), but Mary was the one who composed a response to an epigram by John Harington titled "Of a certayne man. " "Erat quaedam mulier [a reply to John Harington's poem, Erat quidem homo] " is reprinted in Early Modern Women Poets (1520-1700): An Anthology edited by Jane Stevenson and P. A. Davidson. It begins "That no man yet could in the bible find/A certaine woman, argues men are blinde." She was buried in St. Martin's-in-the-fields. Portraits: a marble figure on her monument; portrait by the Master of the Countess of Warwick, 1567; another portrait, by the Circle of Gower, c.1585-1590, is questionable, as it is identical with a portrait at Hatfield called "Lady Hunsdon."
Mary Hill was the daughter of Richard Hill (c.1527-1568), a mercer of Milk Street, London, and Elizabeth Lok or Locke (August 3, 1535-c.1581). Her mother remarried c.1569/70 to Nicholas Bullingham, Bishop of Worcester (c.1511-1576), who raised all thirteen Hill children. In about 1580, Mary married Dr. Thomas Moundeford, Moundford, or Mountfort (1550-December 13, 1630), and was the mother of Osbert (c.1584-1615), Richard (c.1586-1615), Bridget (1587-December 11, 1623), and Katherine (b.c.1588). They resided in Cambridge until 1593 when they removed to London, where Moundeford became well-known as a physician. Mary’s goddaughter, Rachel Speght, dedicated her third feminist tract to Mary in 1617. Mary was buried in St. Mary Magdalen, London.
MARY HILLERSDEN (d. December 30, 1618)
Mary Hillersden, according to the Oxford DNB entry for her son, Sir Humphrey May (1572/3-1630), may have been the daughter of Andrew Hillersden of Memland, Devon. Online genealogies give her parents as John Hillersden of Devon (1500-February 15, 1569) and Joan Kirkham. She married Richard May of Mayfield, Sussex (c.1530-December 30, 1588), a merchant tailor of London. Their children included Elizabeth (c.1565-June 1643), Sir Thomas (d. 1616), Sir Humphrey, and at least two more sons. The essay "Portingale Women and Politics in Late Elizabethan London" by Alan Stewart in Women and Politics in Early Modern England 1450-1700, edited by James Daybell, gives details of the case in Chancery brought by Mary May, widow, against Ferdinando Alvares, Alvaro de Lyma and others over the failure of a venture to sell English goods in Portugal in 1587. Mary claimed that the goods had been seized not because they were English but because the agents in Lisbon were Jewish and that the bribes that had to be paid, which cut into her profits, were not only to free up the goods for sale but also to keep those men from facing the Inquisition. There was a great deal at stake. The value of the merchandise was estimated at £4675 and £25,000 had been invested in the voyage of two ships, the Red Lion and the Christopher. What Mary apparently did not know was that the trip was also a cover for an intelligence gathering operation.
see ALICE BRANDON
see AGNES IFIELD
see ANNE YORKE
see ELIZABETH MALTE
see FRANCES PICKERING
see MARGARET DANIELL
see MARGERY FREEMAN
see ELIZABETH WOODHOUSE
see CECILY UNTON
see ELIZABETH COOKE; ELIZABETH STONOR
JOAN HOBY (d. 1573+)
Joan Hoby (Hobby/Halby) was the daughter of Thomas Hoby (Hobby/Halby) of London. She married four times, first to William Pantin of London. By her second husband, John Sprint of Bristol (d.c.1558), an apothecary, she appears to have had two sons, Gregory (d.1608+) and William (d.1592). Her third husband was Richard Duke of London and Otterton, Devon (d. September 8, 1572), as his second wife. They had one son who died in infancy. When Duke died, Joan arranged the marriage of his widowed daughter, Christina, to her son Gregory Sprint by "subtle drift and device" (according to Sprint's entry in the History of Parliament) and by this means Sprint gained an income of £200 a year in land and 1000 marks worth of goods. Letters of administration for the Duke estate were issued to his widow on September 10,1573, but on September 13, 1573, new letters of administration were issued, this time jointly, to the widow and to Christina Sprint. Joan married again, taking as her fourth husband Roger Gifford. Her son Gregory was later involved in a lawsuit with Gifford.
see MARGARET CAREY; MARGARET DAKINS
see MARY TRACY
MARY HODDY (d.1589)
Mary Hoddy was the daughter of William Hoddy of Pillistone. She married Thomas Carew of Haccombe (1518-May 28, 1586) and was the mother of Peter, Margaret, William, John, Catherine, Dorothy, Barbara, Mary, and Joan. Portrait: brass in Hascombe/Haccombe Devonshire.
see ANNE WOODHOUSE
CHRISTINE HOGG (d.1587+)
Christine Hogg was one of Mary Queen of Scots' ladies. On February 9, 1567, she married Sebastian Pages, Mary's valet-de-chambre. The queen attended the nuptials and that evening, after Mary suddenly remembered that she had promised to return to Holyrood to attend a masque in honor of the newlyweds, Lord Darnley, Mary's husband, was killed in an explosion that destroyed the house in which he was sleeping. Pages was imprisoned on suspicion on complicity in Darnley's murder but was later released. The couple continued to serve the queen after their marriage and when Mary fled Scotland for England, they followed her there. They were with her at Bolton by the autumn of 1568. They had a young family by 1571 and by 1586 their two daughters and their son were also listed as members of Mary's household. Marie, the eldest, was the queen's goddaughter. After the queen was executed, her ladies were held at Fotheringay until July 30, when they were taken to Peterborough Cathedral for Mary's funeral. It was September before they were finally released and allowed to leave England.
CHRISTIAN HOLCROFT (d.1614)
Christian Holcroft was the daughter of William Holcroft, possibly the William Holcroft (c.1525-1581) who married Dorothy Page. She married Edward Cole, who was mayor of Winchester, Hampshire in 1587-8, 1598-9, and 1612-13. Dates given in the History of Parliament entry for Cole (c.1549-1617) vary wildly from those found in various locations online but agree with the dates on a portrait of Cole painted in 1616 when he was sixty-seven. Cole settled in Winchester in 1578 and was admitted to the merchant guild. The following year, Mrs. Cole was licensed by the burghmote to trade within the city during her lifetime. Cole served as registrar for the diocese of Winchester. The History of Parliament gives Cole four sons and one daughter, the eldest of whom, Edward, it says died in 1647. Online genealogies list Edward, William, Martin, John, Anne, and Jane. Most say Edward died in 1637 after serving as mayor of Winchester in 1633. Jane married yet another Winchester mayor, Lancelot Thorpe. Christian Cole was buried in Winchester Cathedral.
see ELIZABETH REYNER
ISABEL HOLCROFT (1555-January 16, 1606)
Isabel Holcroft was the daughter of Thomas Holcroft of Vale-Royal, Cheshire (1505/6-July 31,1558) and Juliana Jennings (d.1595). Isabel was a maid of honor to Queen Elizabeth and on January 6, 1573 married Edward Manners, 3rd earl of Rutland (July 12, 1549-April 14, 1587). As they had no sons, the Rutland title passed to the earl’s brother but their daughter, Elizabeth (1574/5-May 1, 1591) kept the title Baroness Roos. After the death of the earl, the countess of Rutland lived at Winkbourn Hall, Nottinghamshire. Portraits: effigy on her tomb.
see JOAN ROYDON
see JULIANA JENNINGS
MARY HOLFORD (1563-August 15, 1625)
Mary Holford was the daughter of Christopher Holford of Holford, Cheshire (d.1581) and Elizabeth Mainwaring. In 1581 she married Sir Hugh Cholmondeley of Cholmondeley, Cheshire (1552-1601), by whom she had five sons and three daughters: Robert, earl of Leinster (1584-1659), Hatton (d.1605), Hugh (d.1641), Francis (d.yng), Thomas (1595-1653), Lettice (1585-1612), Mary (d.1616) and Frances. Lettice and Mary may be the Cholmondeley sisters pictured in the double portrait of “twins” and their babies now in the Tate. Mary Holford, Lady Cholmondeley, became somewhat infamous for the lawsuits she waged against her uncle, George Holford of Newborough, her father’s half brother. The litigation went on for forty years, finally ending in 1620 with an agreement to split the property. Mary got Holford Hall, where she lived until 1606, and George got the manor of Iscoit. After rebuilding Holford Hall, Mary bought and moved to Vale Royal. It was during a three-day visit there by King James I that he dubbed Mary “the bold lady of Cheshire.” She is buried at Malpas with her husband. Portrait: effigy at Malpas.
see BARBARA WENTWORTH
see ELEANOR HARBOTTLE
ELIZABETH HOLLAND (by 1512-before 1557)
Elizabeth Holland was the daughter (some sources say the sister) of John Holland of Wartwell Hall in Redenhall, Norfolk and a kinswoman, probably a niece, of John Hussey, 1st baron Hussey of Sleaford. John Holland was the duke of Norfolk’s secretary and one of his stewards and Elizabeth, known as Bess, was also part of the ducal household at Kenninghall in 1526. At that time, Thomas Howard, 3rd duke of Norfolk (1473-August 24,1554) noticed her and she became his mistress. Because of the letters left by the duchess of Norfolk (Elizabeth Stafford), there is a good deal of confusion about Bess Holland. Since she was a gentlewoman, she was probably not a laundress in the household, or the children’s nurse. She may have been their governess. She was certainly on good terms with Mary Howard, Norfolk’s daughter. When Anne Boleyn was created Marquess of Pembroke, Bess Holland was one of her maids of honor and she was still at court in 1537, when she rode in the funeral cortege of Queen Jane Seymour. The records left by the duchess of Norfolk paint Bess Holland as a villainess and the duke as a monster, but the truth is probably less dramatic. Bess was his mistress for some twenty years. In December 1546, however, when both the duke and his son, Henry Howard, earl of Surrey, were charged with treason, Bess gave evidence against them. She probably had no choice. When the king's agents seized and searched Kenninghall, they also confiscated all of Bess's possessions, including the jewelry she had concealed upon her person. She also lost a new house on thirty-six acres of land in Framlingham, which the duke had recently given to her and probably the side saddle of Naples fustian he had ordered for her but not yet paid for. The bill for it was 26s 8d. In her lodgings at Kenninghall (an outer chamber, bedchamber, and adjoining garret), the commissioners seized rings, brooches, strings of pearls, silver spoons, ivory tables, and other treasures. She was taken to London for questioning but was eventually released. Her jewelry was returned in February 1547. Her brother George signed "for and in the name of my said sister" and Bess was identified as living in Mendham, Suffolk. She also received an annuity of £20 from Mary Howard, duchess of Richmond. At some point after this, Bess married. Jeffrey Miles or Myles of Stoke Nayland, Suffolk, is identified as her husband by Gerard Brenan and Edward Phillips Stratham in The House of Howard (1908), but a hundred years later, the Oxford DNB says her husband was Henry Reppes of Mendham (1509-February 10, 1558), that she married him in 1547, and that she died in childbirth in 1547/8. Other sources claim she was still alive when the duke died in 1554. He made no provision for her in his will. Then again, he did not mention his wife the duchess, either. He did leave £100 to bring up a child in his household named Joan Goodman, possibly his natural daughter. Bess had definitely died before 1557, when Henry Reppes took a second wife.
see ELIZABETH TOMSON
(1540+-before November 16, 1570)
Mary Holland was the daughter of Sir Richard Holland of Denton, Lancashire (March 25, 1493-May 27, 1548+) and Eleanor Harbottle (1504-May 18, 1566). Some sources say Holland was Eleanor Harbottle's first husband, married in 1524, but this is incorrect. She was married first to Sir Thomas Percy (c.1504-x.1537), by whom she had several children, including two future earls of Northumberland. Holland had also been married before. Mary Holland had only one full sibling, a brother named Richard (d.1548+). It has been suggested that Mary Holland might be the Mrs. Holland who was one of Queen Mary's attendants in 1555/6 and this is certainly possible, although unproven. Mary married Arthur Pole of Lordlington, Sussex (1531-c.1570). His entry in the Oxford DNB says they wed before September 1562. Other sources say the wedding took place between September 15, 1562 and January 27, 1563. Either way, they were not to have much of a life together. Arthur had already been in the Fleet in April 1561 and he was imprisoned again in late 1562. Condemned on a charge of treason in February 1563, he spent the rest of his life in the Tower of London, dying there sometime between January 1570 and August 12, 1570.
see SUSAN GUNTER
see ELEANOR SHEFFIELD
see ELIZABETH SCOPEHAM
see JOYCE WASHBOURNE
Margaret Holsewyther was the daughter of Henry Holsewyther of Berg, a part of Cleves. He was a goldsmith and was naturalized in England on June 12, 1514. Margaret married Lucas Horenboult (d. May 1544) in 1522 or 1523 and had by him a daughter named Jacomyne or Jacquemine. They lived at Charing Cross and both appear to have been working artists since, in May of 1547, nearly three years after Lucas’s death, Queen Kathryn Parr was sending to “the painters” to order miniatures of herself and the young King Edward VI. Susan E. James believes that this reference is to Margaret and her daughter. On July 4, 1544, Margaret remarried, taking as her second husband Hugh Hawarde, surveyor of the queen’s stable. Haward's will is dated October 12, 1558 and was proved on January 17, 1559. Margaret survived him and may have been the Margareta Hawarde who married Hans Hunt on November 18, 1560 at St. Martin in the Fields, where her first husband was buried. A John Hunt was the queen's armorer.
MARY HOLT (d. August 1, 1597)
Mary Holt was the daughter of John Holt or Holte of Cheshire. She married Nicholas Barham of Maidstone and Boxley, Kent (1520-July 25, 1577), by whom she had two children, Arthur (d.1608+) and Margaret (d.1564+). Their main residence was a mansion called Dygons in Knightrider Street in Maidstone. This and other property acquired between 1555 and 1561 was later said to have been forfeited in Wyatt's Rebellion, but it was awarded to Mary and her son after her husband's death. Barham, who died of gaol fever contracted at the Oxford assizes, left a very detailed will behind, written on July 24, 1577. Among other things, he left Mary all his bedding at Serjeant's Inn. According to his entry in the History of Parliament, this document gave a value to her gold chain and even estimated the amount of wheat, fruit, and rabbits she'd need for housekeeping. He named her one of his two executors and left them with about £200 in debts to pay. In the subsidy of 1585, Mary was assessed £3 on lands she owned.
ELIZABETH HOME (c.1599-August 19, 1633)
Elizabeth Home (or Hume) was the younger daughter and coheir of George Home, earl of Dunbar (1573-January 20, 1611) and Elizabeth Gordon (1575-1645). At an early age, she was betrothed to Theophilus Howard, baron Howard de Walden (1584-1640), later 2nd earl of Suffolk. They married in March 1612 and had nine children: James (c.1620-1689), Thomas, Catherine (d.1650), Elizabeth (d. March 11, 1705), Margaret, George (1625-1691), Henry (1627-1709), Anne, and Frances (d.1677). Portrait: unknown artist, c.1615.
HONE (d. 1586)
Joan Hone was the daughter of Robert Hone of Ottery St. Mary, Devon (c.1490-1543) and his wife Johane. In about 1543 she married John Bodley of Exeter (c.1520-October 1591). Their children were Thomas (1545-1613), Sybil, Lawrence (1547/8-1615), Josias (c.1550-1617), Miles, Prothesia, Alice, Elizabeth, and Susan. Under Mary Tudor, the family left England in 1555, settling first in Wesel. They arrived in Geneva in May 1557, remaining there until they returned to England in September 1559. In Geneva artist Nicholas Hilliard, then still a child, was part of their household. On January 8, 1561, John Bodley received a license for seven years exclusive right to print and import the Geneva Bible. By 1568, the family was settled at the Three Cranes in London.
(December 2, 1561-August 3, 1631)
Elizabeth Honeywood was the daughter of Sir Robert Honeywood of Honewood, Kent (c.1523-1576) and Mary Atwaters (1527-1620). On December 9, 1579, she married George Woodward of Burgate, Suffolk (b. April 10, 1549). They had three daughters, Bridget (b.1582), Elizabeth (b.1584), and Martha (June 7, 1597-August 25, 1670). Portrait: date unknown.
see MARY WATERS
ANNA HOOFTMAN (1565-April 28, 1624 or April 26, 1626)
Anna Hooftman was the daughter of Gieles van Eychelberg (also seen as Gilles van Eyckelberg), alias Egidius Hooftman (1521-1581), a wealthy Antwerp banker who was one of the richest men in the Netherlands, and Margaretha van Nispen (c.1545-March 23, 1598). The History of Parliament entry for her second husband gives the spelling of her name as Anne Hoostman. Her first husband was Sir Horatio Palavicino (c.1540-July 5, 1600), a naturalized English citizen and financial magnate who undertook missions for Queen Elizabeth. They were married in Frankfurt on April 27, 1591 but settled at Babraham, near Cambridge, England. She brought a dowry of £10,000, most of it in property in the Netherlands. They had three children, Henry (1592-1615), Toby (1593-c.1644), and Baptina (1594-1618). According to the Oxford DNB entry for her husband, Anna was "inclined toward melancholy" during her first years in England. Her husband was much older than she and suffered from gout and arthritis but in 1594 he spoke of going to the Netherlands to bring back her mother and two unmarried sisters and arrange marriages for the girls in England. It is not known if he did so. When he died, Anna was left as sole executor of the Palavicino estate, which was valued at about £100,000. Among specific bequests, her husband left Anna all his plate, jewels, and household goods, and all her clothes. He left their daughter an annuity of £150 until her marriage, at which time her portion would be £5000. Anna bought back the custody, wardship, and marriage of the heir, Henry, for £550 and also acquired the one-third of the property that fell to the Crown by paying a fine of £340 and an annual rent of £90. She also cut off the allowance Palavicino had been paying to his illegitimate son, Edward. On July 7, 1601, Anna remarried, taking as her second husband Sir Oliver Cromwell of Godmanchester and Hinchinbrooke, Huntingdonshire (April 25, 1563-August 28, 1655). They promptly arranged the marriages of his daughter Catherine (1594-1614) to her son Henry, his daughter Jane (1593-c.1644) to her son Toby, and his son Henry (1586-1657) to her daughter Baptina. These weddings took place in 1606. At fourteen, Henry, as arranged by his father, was taken into the household of the earl of Shrewsbury, his godfather. Anna had two sons and two daughters by Cromwell, Oliver (d.1628), Giles (d. June 25, 1673), Anna (d. April 13, 1663), and Mary (d.1634). The couple entertained King James at Hinchinbrooke with "the greatest feast that has ever been given to a king by a subject" in 1603. The king returned for visits in 1605, 1616, and 1617. Palavicino had been owed a large debt by the City of London at the time of his death and in 1602 there was talk of giving Anna the Burgundian jewels as partial payment. Her agent valued them at £6,477. 5s. while the Crown's jeweler estimated they were worth £12,000. Nothing came of this and the settlement dragged on into the reign of King James. In the summer of 1606, Cromwell received a grant of chantry lands valued at £700 a year to settle the debt. He took £500 worth and traded the other lands for a cash payment of £6000. When Anna died, her goods at Cromwell's house at Ramsey in Huntingdonshire, which had come from Babraham, were inventoried. Among other items were a silver tongue scraper and ten rings. Portrait: identified as Anna Hooftman, in some sources the life dates are given as 1613-1645, placing her in the next generation, but most agree this is the Anna who married Horatio Palavicino. A portrait of her parents by Marten de Vos (c.1570) is also extant.
see ANNE de TSERCLAES
ANNE HOPTON (1561-May1625)
Anne Hopton was the daughter of Sir Owen Hopton of Cockfield Hall in Yoxford, Suffolk (c.1519-September 1595) and Anne Echingham (d.1599). She is said to have been a maid of honor to Queen Elizabeth in 1588/9 but other sources say she was married to Henry Wentworth, 3rd baron Wentworth (1558-August 16,1593) around 1585. Maids of honor were, by definition, unmarried. With Wentworth she had three children, Thomas, earl of Cleveland (1591-1667), Henry (d.1644), and Jane. In 1595 she married Sir William Pope of Wroxton (1573-1633) who was later created earl of Downe. She had a son, William (1596-1624), by her second husband. Portraits: by Marcus Gheeraerts, 1596, pregnant with son William and shown with her children from her first marriage.
CECILY HOPTON (d. April 1625)
Cecily Hopton was the daughter of Sir Owen Hopton of Cockfield Hall in Yoxford, Suffolk (c.1519-September 1595) and Anne Echingham (d.1599). Hopton was Lord Lieutenant of the Tower of London from 1570 and Cecily lived there with him. In August 1581, a twenty-five-year-old recusant named John Stonor was a prisoner in the Tower for eight months. Cecily fell in love with him and converted to Catholicism. After Stonor’s release in April 1582, Cecily continued to work for the Catholic cause. In November 1583, she let George Throckmorton, brother of the imprisoned Francis Throckmorton, into the precincts so that Francis could throw messages written on playing cards to him from his cell. George himself became a prisoner there only a few days later. When Cecily was examined by the authorities on December 14, 1583, she confessed to speaking to George Throckmorton in his chamber. He asked her to help his brother escape. This she refused to do, but she did not report the request to her father. She also admitted that on December 8th or 9th, she brought a man to George's chamber door. She left him there to talk with George through the keyhole and went into Mrs. Somerville's chamber, which prevented her from overhearing what the two men said to each other. Stephen Alford, in The Watchers, suggests that "Sislye" Hopton also helped George convey a letter from Francis to his wife, Anne. Anne received this letter on December 13th. At some point, Cecily also took messages from prisoners in the Tower to those in the Marshalsea. Ronald Connelly, in Women of the Catholic Resistance in England 1540-1680, states that when her activities were discovered (he says in 1586), her father was removed from his post and Cecily was never permitted inside the Tower again. However, according to the Oxford DNB, Hopton continued to serve as Lord Lieutenant until he resigned in 1590 and did so then for financial reasons. Another source has Cecily letting a priest into the earl of Arundel's cell to say Mass in 1588. Cecily later married Sir George Marshall (d. July 1636), an equerry to King James, and was the mother of a daughter, Anne. Cecily was buried April 23, 1625 at the Athelstan Chapel at Malmesbury.
Dorothy Hopton was the daughter of Sir Arthur Hopton of Witham, Somerset (c.1551-November 20, 1607) and Rachel Hall (1554-1629). Some sources incorrectly give her father as Sir Arthur Hopton (1488/9-1555) or as Sir George Hopton. Her first husband was William Smith or Smyth of Burgh Castle Manor, Suffolk (d. December 6, 1596), by whom she had two sons, William Roberts Smyth (c.1593-1609) and Sir Owen Smyth (d.1637). On July 21, 1597, she married Sir Nathaniel Bacon of Stiffkey, Norfolk (1546-November 1622) and he became guardian of her sons. He planned to make eldest her son his heir by means of a marriage to one of his granddaughters and for him, at her instigation, he built a second mansion at Irmingland, Norfolk, but the boy died at sixteen and his younger brother was not an acceptable replacement, as he’d threatened to sue Bacon for abusing his guardianship. Around 1609, Bacon had an annual income estimated at about £2000. According to the article on Bacon in the Oxford DNB, his marriage to Dorothy was not a happy one. Husband and wife were "temperamentally incompatible" and "quarrelled to the point where their servants talked openly of their 'great falling out.'" In spite of this, he left Dorothy Irmingland in his will, together with £400 a year. She lived at King's Lynn for the remainder of her life. She was buried beside her first husband at Great Cressingham.
Margaret Hopton was the daughter of Sir Arthur Hopton of Cockfield in Yoxford, Suffolk (1488-August 16, 1555) and his second wife, Anne Owen (d.1556+). She married Anthony Cockett of South Mimms, Middlesex and Sibton, Suffolk (d.1560/1), by whom she had a son, Arthur, and a daughter, Anne, who were both still minors when he died. Her second husband, married before 1571, was Arthur Robsart, illegitimate half brother of Amye Robsart. In 1571, they were granted letters of administration for her first husband's estate.
see MARGARET HOLSEWYTHER
SUSANNA HORENBOULT or HORNEBOLT (c.1504-c.1554)
Susanna Horenboult was the daughter of Gheraert Horenboult of Ghent (1480-1540) and Margaret Sanders (d. November 26,1529). Both her father and her brother, Lucas, were among the King’s Painters at the court of Henry VIII. Lucas was employed in 1525 and Gerard by 1528 at an annual salary £25. The surname is also spelled Horneboud, Hoorenbault, Horenbout, and Horebout. Susanna herself was an illuminator and miniature painter who had gained recognition on the Continent before coming to England around 1522 to work as an artist for Henry VIII. She was assigned to the queen's household rather than being listed as a artist. Around 1526, she married John Parker (c.1493/4-September 1537), who was, among other things, Yeoman of the Wardrobe and Keeper of the Palace of Westminster. Susanna may have ceased to paint professionally when they married, as that was the common practice. Her husband had houses in Fulham and King's Langley. The same year Parker died, Susanna also lost her place in the queen's household due to the death of Jane Seymour and by 1538 she was in serious financial difficulties. She had no children by Parker. On September 22,1539, Susanna married John Gylmyn or Gilman (c.1503-1558) in St. Margaret's Church, Westminster. He was a widower with a young daughter and a freeman of the vintner's company, as well as holding a position at court. Two weeks later, Susanna was sent to Anne of Cleves as a personal ambassador from King Henry, and possibly as a spy. She was supplied with £40 for travel expenses and issued livery and was gone from England for three months. She joined the household of Anne of Cleves in Dusseldorf and accompanied the future queen to England. Anne made Susanna her chief gentlewoman and provided her with servants of her own. At Calais in December, delayed by bad weather, "Mrs. Gylmyn" taught Anne of Cleves to play a card game called Cent (an early form of piquet). Susanna remained in Anne's household as a gentlewoman of the Privy Chamber until Anne's marriage to Henry VIII was annulled. Susanna and her second husband received several grants of property from the Crown and lived in St. Bride's parish, London and later in Richmond. They had two sons and at least two daughters, including Henry (1540-1593) and Anne (b.c.1541/2). In 1543, Susanna was back at court as part of Kathrine Parr's household and remained at court under Edward VI. In June 1547, Susanna and her second husband brought a case against the heirs of her first husband in the Court of Requests. She died before July 7, 1554, when John Gilman remarried. According to one source, at the time of her death, she was living in Worcester. Biography: Lorne Campbell and Susan Foister, "Gerard, Lucas and Susanna Horenbout," The Burlington Magazine, vol.128 no.1003 (October 1986), pp. 716-727; Susan E. James, The Feminine Dynamic in English Art, 1485-1603, Chapters 5 and 6. Portrait: Susanna and her first husband may be the subjects of a pair of miniatures in the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna painted by Hans Holbein in 1534
Jane Hornby was from Lancashire. At some point after the death of his third wife on January 12, 1523, she became the fourth wife of Sir Richard Fitzlewis of West Horndon, Essex (c.1446-July 12, 1528). She was one of his executors and commissioned a brass showing Sir Richard with all four of his wives for his grave at Horndon. Shortly after his death, she married Sir John Norton of Faversham and Middleton, Kent (d. February 8, 1534), as his second wife. The History of Parliament calls him her third husband. She had intended to be buried with Norton in Faversham, Kent and began building a monument there, but when he died, he left instructions that he be buried in Middleton with his first wife. Jane completed the monument in Faversham anyway but left instructions in her will that she be buried with Fitzlewis instead. Portrait: brass in Ingrave Church, Essex (formerly in the old church of West Horndon, alias Thorndon, moved in 1731).
see AMY CLARKE
ANNE HORNE (1455-November 1505)
Anne Horne, sometimes called Joan, was the daughter of Robert Horne, alderman of Lonodn, and Joan Fabian. She married first Sir William Harcourt of Maxstoke, Warwickshire and Braunstone, Leicestershire (d.c.1471), then Sir John Stanley of Elford, Staffordshire (d. June 29, 1476), and third, before January 31, 1477/8, as his third wife, Sir William Norreys or Norrys of Yattendon, Adresham, Elington, Bullocks, Hall Court, and Marlston, Berkshire and London (1433-January 4, 1507). By her third husband she had two sons, Richard and Lionel (1480-1537), and four daughters, Katherine, Anne, Elizabeth, and Jane. In 1479, the couple sued John Stanley for a third part of the manors of Clifton-Campville, Haunton, and Pipe, Staffordshire, claiming them as part of her dower. Norreys was attainted in 1484 for taking part in the Duke of Buckingham's rebellion but in 1486 he was granted the manor of Redenhall, Norfolk by the king.
Elizabeth Horne was the daughter of Edmund Horne of Sarsdon, Oxfordshire (c.1490-1553), a gentleman pensioner, and Amy Clarke. Elizabeth's mother took as her second husband Sir James Mervyn (1539-1611), by whom she had another daughter, Lucy (1565-before 1610), who later married George Touchet, baron Audley (later earl of Castlehaven). Brought up in her stepfather's household in Wiltshire, Elizabeth married Anthony Bourne of Holt Castle, Worcestershire in 1566. Although they had two children, Mary and Amy, Bourne was a womanizer and frequently away from home. He was also a violent man, both verbally and physically. By the early 1570s, after he had stolen the wife of a London gentleman, Lord Burghley threatened to prosecute him. In 1575, Bourne fled to Calais with his mistress and their son. He had placed his assets in trust, but Bourne's trustees feared the queen would confiscate his estate. To prevent that, they persuaded him to return to England and beg Queen Elizabeth's forgiveness for leaving the country without a license. He was fined £1000. After setting up a new trust with Sir John Conway (d. October 4, 1603) as sole trustee, he left England for a second time. He also gave Conway the right to arrange his daughters' marriages, with the understanding that the eldest girl would marry Conway's eldest son, Edward (c.1564-1631). A little later, Bourne tried to break the trust. According to Lamar M. Hill's "The Privy Council and Private Morality," an essay in State, Sovereigns & Society, edited by Charles Carlton, it was at this point that Elizabeth petitioned the Privy Council for a legal separation from her husband. According to Charlotte Merton's The Women who served Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth, it was her mother who "contrived to have her daughter's plea brought before the Privy Council rather than before an ecclesiastical court." She had some influence at court, having been one of the first "ladies extraordinary" of the Privy Chamber to Queen Elizabeth. Amy Clarke Mervyn or Marvin is found on lists of ladies in 1558/9 and 1567/8. The situation dragged on, unresolved, until 1590, in spite of Elizabeth having the able advice of Sir Julius Caesar. In November 1584, Elizabeth wrote to her half sister, Lady Audley, in reply to a letter Lucy had written to her in August: "My good Sister, I give you a million of thanks, that you would vouchsafe to enquire after my well-doing. Amongst all my misfortunes, nothing had increased my grief so much as the unkindness of my natural friends, of whom I have allways deserved well, and find the contrary. When I was distressed, and forced and constrained by necessity to seek the aid of friends to resist the injuries my unkind husband offered me himself, and my children, to the utter overthrow of us all, I first sought my refuge amongst those which by nature were most bound to have yielded me counsel and comfort, friendship, succour and assistance. Being refused through no ill deserts in myself, but through want of good will in themselves, I was forced, my dear sister, and could not otherwise, to accept aid amongst strangers who had some reason to offer it, and I more to take it. . . . I live at Sarisden, where I mean to secrete myself and my sorrows, until God give me a better estate." During this time, Sir John Conway and his wife, Ellen or Eleanor Grenville, had custody of Elizabeth's daughters. Elizabeth's relationship with Sir John and his wife was complex. One of her letters to him (September 11, 1587) complains about his wife, who "wrongfully" was trying to match Mary with their second son (instead of Edward Conway, the heir), and gain control of Amy in order to have her marry their youngest son, Fulke Conway. In another letter, written using the pseudonym Frances Wesley, Elizabeth mocked Lady Conway mercilessly. About seventy of Elizabeth's letters are extant, some of them written as Frances Wesley and as Anne Hayes (another pseudonym). They paint a detailed picture of her life after her husband left her. A good number of the letters are addressed to Sir John Conway, a man she called "a friend so perfect as ever was." In many they discussed books—Elizabeth read histories, romances, and poetry—but there are also hints of a closer, romantic relationship. One prefaces a plea for financial aid with an original poem. In another, Elizabeth describes herself as "a wandering woman laden with grief." Excerpts from a number of her letters and more details can be found in James Daybell's Women Letter-Writers in Tudor England. Amy Bourne did marry Fulke Conway. Mary Bourne wed Sir Herbert Croft.
see MARGARET NEVILLE
JOAN HORNER (d. 1568+)
Joan or Jane Horner was the daughter of John Horner of Cloford, Somersetshire. Her first husband was John Buckland (1498- October 18, 1558), who bought the manor of West Harptree, Somersetshire from Sir John Russell in 1543. She inherited a life interest in this property when he died. Their children were John (d. February 6, 1563), George, Thomas, Frances, Margaret, and Cecile. Her eldest son, John, left the "lands, rents, etc. late belonging to the monastery of Keynsham" to his younger brother George in trust during the life of his mother "Jone Buckland" and, at her death, to his wife, Thomasine. He also left his mother a cup of silver gilt that had belonged to his uncle and a ring. At some point after this, Joan married Sir John Newton of East Harptree, Somersetshire (d. April 10, 1568). His first wife, who had died in 1559, had borne him twenty-one children, including Henry Newton (c.1531-1599). After Sir John Newton died, Joan and her stepson became embroiled in a series of quarrels over the life interest she had inherited in the manor of Netherbadgworth, Somersetshire. Henry claimed this did not give her the right to arrange tenancies on the property. The case went to Chancery and by 1580 the Star Chamber and common law courts were also involved. The plans made by her son, Thomas Buckland, to dig for iron ore in the Mendips c.1580 also became a feature in the case but the outcome is unknown, as is the date Lady Newton died.
Joan Horner was the daughter of Sir John Horner of Cloford, Somersetshire (c.1527-November 24, 1587) and his second wife. On December 16, 1594, she married, as his second wife, John Still, bishop of Bath and Wells (1543-February 26, 1608). He had been consecrated in February 1593 and his first wife, Anne Alabaster had died two months later, on April 15, 1593, leaving him with six children under the age of nineteen. Joan brought a dowry of £1050. Her brother Thomas (c.1547-1612) acted as her trustee for the purchase of the manor of Mourton Wroughton in Compton Martin and other property at that time. According to legend, Queen Elizabeth did not approve of the marriage. She is said to have remarked that it was dangerous for a bishop to match with a Horner, supposedly a reference to the story that her grandfather, Sir John Horner of Stoke St. Michael, Somersetshire and steward to the last abbot of Glastonbury, was the "Little Jack Horner" of the nursery rhyme. The "plum" he pulled out is supposed to have been the deed to the manor of Mells, which the Horners acquired at the Dissolution of the Monasteries. That story aside, the queen did not approve of married bishops. Joan and the bishop had one son, Thomas (1595-1640), and possibly a daughter named Anne or Agnes. Bishop Still made his will on February 4, 1608, at which time Joan was still living, but she did not long survive him. She was buried on September 29, 1608 at Cloford.
see MURIEL MALTE
see EDITH MOHUN
Margery Horsman was a maid of honor to Henry VIII's first three queens and a member of the households of the last three, although in some accounts of Anne Boleyn's life, she is identified as "of the queen's wardrobe." In the January 1534 list, hers is the seventh name after Mrs. Marshall, "mistress of the maidens." If there were only six maids of honor, this may indicated she held another position. Or not. She was probably the "one maiden more" who was the third of three women to make accusations against Anne Boleyn in 1536. Edward Baynton recorded that "Mistress Margery" first assisted him and then became uncooperative, which fits with a report by Sir William Kingston that suggests she was loyal to the queen. Margery may also be the "Marguerite" mentioned as a witness in some reports. And she may have been with Anne Boleyn in the Tower. What is certain is that when Jane Seymour was queen, Margery offered advice to Lady Lisle about placing her daughters at court and appears a number of times in the Lisle letters. In particular, she advised that Anne Bassett, Lady Lisle's daughter, was too young at fifteen to serve as a maid of honor to Queen Jane. Margery married Sir Michael Lister of Hurstbourne, Hampshire (d.1551), as his second wife, on June 27, 1537 and with her husband served jointly as Keeper of the Queen's Jewels. She had two children, Charles (d. November 26, 1613) and Lawrence. Portrait: The portrait by Hans Holbein the Younger labeled Lady Lister is probably Margery’s mother-in-law, Isabel Shirley, but I include it here on the off chance it is Margery instead.
see MAUD CURZON
see MARGARETE HETZEL
see AGNES TYLNEY
see ALATHEA TALBOT
see ALICE LOVELL
Anne Howard was the daughter of Thomas Howard, 2nd duke of Norfolk (1443-May 21, 1524) and Agnes Tylney (1477-May 1545). She was married on April 15, 1512 to her father's ward, John de Vere (August 14, 1499-July 14, 1526), who in the following year became the 14th earl of Oxford upon the death of his uncle. The countess of Oxford in Catherine of Aragon's household was the wife of the 13th earl but Anne accompanied the queen to the Field of Cloth of Gold in 1520. As a countess, she was allowed to take three gentlewomen with her. There is a tantalizing reference in the entry for John Raynsford in the History of Parliament. Raynsford was part of an armed expedition led by Oxford into Lavenham park, where the earls of Oxford were lords of the manor, against the countess. No reason or outcome is given. The couple had no surviving children. Anne was buried in the parish church at Lambeth on February 22, 1558/9.
see ANNE DACRE; ANNE PLANTAGENET; ANNE ST. JOHN
(1532-November 18, 1601)
Anne (sometimes called Agnes) Howard, was the daughter of William Howard, 1st baron Howard of Effingham (1510-January 21, 1573) and his first wife, Katherine Broughton (c.1514-April 23, 1535). She should not be confused with a half sister, also named Anne, but born c. 1560. Anne/Agnes married William Paulet of Hooke Court, Dorset (1535-November 24, 1598), 3rd Marquess of Winchester from 1576, in February 1548 and was the mother of his legitimate children, William, 4th marquess (1563-February 4, 1627/8), Anne, Catherine, Elizabeth (1560-1581), and one other daughter. Her husband, however, kept a mistress, Jane Lambert, by whom he had four sons (see JANE LAMBERT), and was estranged from Anne. In 1578, Queen Elizabeth attempted to reconcile the couple but failed. Sir Amias Paulet took Anne's side but recommended a reconciliation, while the 2nd earl of Bedford supported the marquess. Anne's wilfulness and disobedience were the reasons he gave for the breakdown of their marriage. After his death, his legitimate family successfully contested a will that made three of the Lamberts executors and beneficiaries. According to the unpublished PhD dissertation All the Queen's Women: The Changing Place and Perception of Aristocratic Women in Elizabethan England 1558-1620 (1987) by Joan Barbara Greenbaum Goldsmith, Anne had no official position at court but was often there to visit friends. In 1587, she was one of two women of higher rank than countess who were available to serve as chief mourner at the funeral of Mary, Queen of Scots. When the countess of Rutland was chosen instead, it was a deliberate insult to the Scottish queen’s memory. Charlotte Merton, in The Women who served Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth tells the story of how, on November 24, 1588, the marchioness had the dubious honor of carrying Queen Elizabeth's train in the celebrations following the defeat of the Spanish Armada. This formal procession moved through London from Somerset House to St. Paul's. The queen rode in a chariot. Anne, her arms full of fabric, was on foot behind her.
see CATHERINE CAREY
CATHERINE HOWARD (1521-February 13,1542)
Catherine Howard was the daughter of Lord Edmund Howard (c.1479-March 19,1539) and Joyce Culpepper (c.1480-1527+). She was raised by her father’s stepmother, the dowager duchess of Norfolk (Agnes Tylney) until she went to court as a maid of honor to Anne of Cleves in January,1540. In short order, King Henry VIII fell in love with her, had his marriage to Anne annulled, and married Catherine on July 28. Unfortunately, Catherine had two lovers in her past and another in her future and within two years of her marriage had been executed for adultery and treason. Biographies: Joanna Denny’s Katherine Howard and Lacey Baldwin Smith’s A Tudor Tragedy; Oxford DNB entry under "Katherine [Catherine; née Katherine Howard]." Portraits: a painting by Hans Holbein the Younger often said to be Catherine is actually Elizabeth Seymour, sister of Queen Jane; a Holbein miniature (shown here ) has been suggested by Susan E. James as a portrait of Lady Margaret Douglas instead.
(1539?-April 7, 1596)
Catherine Howard was the second daughter of Henry Howard, earl of Surrey (1517-x. January 19, 1547) and Frances Vere (1517-June 30, 1577). After her father's execution she was raised by her aunt, Mary Howard, duchess of Richmond and taught by John Foxe. She was a tomboy, an excellent shot with a longbow, an avid hunter of deer, and an expert falconer. In September 1554 at Kenninghall, she married Henry, baron Berkeley (November 26, 1534-November 26, 1613). Their extravagant lifestyle forced them to reduce their household from 150 in 1570 to 70 in 1580. Catherine refused to agree to marriages for her two daughters, Mary and Frances (d.1595) with two sons of Sir Henry Sidney because they were the earl of Leicester's nephews and there was enmity between Leicester and Catherine's brother, the 4th duke of Norfolk. In August 1572, less than a month after Norfolk's execution, Queen Elizabeth visited Berkeley Castle to go hunting when Catherine and her husband were elsewhere. Her party slaughtered twenty-seven stags in one day. She made a return visit in 1574. The queen is also said to have encouraged lawsuits by Leicester and his relatives against the Berkeleys, resulting in years of litigation. And yet, in 1575, she was godmother by proxy to their son Thomas. According to the history of the Berkeley family written by a member of the household, John Smyth, when Catherine attempted to win back the queen's favor, Queen Elizabeth said, "No, no, my Lady Berkeley, we know you will never love us for the death of your brother." Smyth describes Catherine as haughty and overly proud of her lineage but praises her eloquence in speech and great learning, saying that she was "skillful in French" and "perfect in Italian." The lawsuit in question originated in the early fifteenth century and was not settled until 1609. Jesse Childs, in Henry VIII's Last Victim," a biography of Catherine's father, claims that Catherine was a "dilettante of the dark arts" who "dabbled" in necromancy.
Dorothy Howard was the daughter of Thomas Howard, 2nd duke of Norfolk (1443-May 12, 1524) and Agnes Tylney (1477-May 1545). With her mother, she was with Princess Mary at Richmond in 1520 when most of the court went to France for the meeting between Henry VIII and Francis I at the Field of Cloth of Gold. Sometime after the death of his first wife, Katherine Howard, in 1530, Dorothy married Edward Stanley, 3rd earl of Derby (May 10, 1508-October 24, 1572). As Lady Derby she accompanied Anne Boleyn to France before Anne's marriage to Henry VIII. She was also in Anne's coronation procession and in the funeral procession of Jane Seymour. Her children were Henry (1531-September 25, 1593), Thomas (d.1576), Elizabeth (d.1590), Mary, Anne (d. September 22, 1602), and Jane (d.1569).
see DOROTHY TROYES
DOUGLAS HOWARD (1542/3-December 1608)
Douglas Howard was the eldest daughter of William Howard, baron Howard of Effingham (c.1510-January 21,1573) and Margaret Gamage (1515-May 1,1581). It has been suggested that her godmother was Margaret Douglas, countess of Lennox. She was said to resemble her cousin, Queen Catherine Howard. She was a maid of honor in 1558. In 1560, at seventeen, she married John Sheffield, 2nd baron Sheffield (c.1538-December 10,1568). She is not mentioned in her husband's will, written on December 10, 1568 and proved January 31, 1568/9. After Sheffield's death, some later said by poison, his widow returned to court as a gentlewoman of the privy chamber. There she vied for the attention of Robert Dudley, earl of Leicester (June 24,1532-September 4,1588) with her own sister, Frances Howard. By May, 1573, it was an open secret that Douglas was his mistress. According to a later deposition by Douglas, they were secretly married late that year, well before the birth of their son, Robert (August 7, 1574-1649), at Sheen House in Surrey. An earlier child is supposed to have been born at Dudley Castle, home of Douglas's sister, Mary Howard, but that baby did not live. When young Robert was two, Leicester took him to Newington to be brought up by Lord North as befitted an earl's son, but he refused to support Douglas's claim that she was his wife. In 1576, he offered her a settlement of £700 per annum to agree that they had never been married. After Leicester's marriage to Lettice Knollys became public, Douglas was asked to help the queen in her effort to have that marriage annulled, but instead of pressing her claim, she married Sir Edward Stafford of Grafton, Staffordshire (1552-February 5, 1604/5) on November 28, 1579 at her house in Blackfriars. She later claimed she committed bigamy to put an end to Leicester's attempts to have her poisoned. She went with Stafford to France, where he served as ambassador from 1583 until 1591. She was a great success there and is said to have become friendly with Catherine de' Medici and to have consoled her after the death of her son the duc de Alençon in 1584. In 1588, because of the wars of religion, she was sent home for her own protection. She was at the English court during the 1590s. Douglas had three legitimate sons, Edward Sheffield (December 7,1565-October 6,1646) and two boys by Stafford who died young, and a daughter, Elizabeth Sheffield (d.November 1600). In 1604, in an attempt to legitimize her son by Dudley, she appeared before the Star Chamber and testified that she and Dudley were betrothed in 1571 and married in 1573 at Esher, Surrey, but she had no proof. Douglas was buried December 11, 1608 in St. Margaret's, Westminster. Among the provision in her will, dated September 14, 1608 and proved February 16, 1608/9, which can be found at Oxford-Shakespeare.com, were bequests to her "beloved friend" Mrs. Waller, to Marie Morton ("my woman"), to "my woman Savile" and to "Marie Turner, my ancient servant." Biography: a lengthy Oxford DNB entry under "Sheffield [née Howard], Douglas." Portrait: a portrait "of Lady Sheffield in a frame" was listed in the earl of Leicester’s inventory in 1588.
29, 1571/2-August 13, 1590)
Douglas Howard was the only child and heiress of Henry Howard, 3rd Viscount Bindon (1542-January 16, 1591) and Frances Meautas (d.1600+). On October 13, 1584, she married Sir Arthur Gorges of Chelsea, Middlesex (1557-October 10, 1625), the poet and translator. They had the approval of Douglas’s mother, but her father, who was insane and in prison in that year, objected to the match and a legal wrangle ensued. Douglas had one child, Ambrosia (December 25, 1588-October 1600). Bindon promptly claimed she was a changeling with no claim on Douglas’s future inheritance from him and the litigation continued. Douglas’s death devastated her husband and prompted the composition of an elegy, "Daphnaida," by Arthur’s friend Edmund Spenser. Although the quote is credited to Gorges in reference to his second wife in the History of Parliament entry for Henry Clinton, Gorges’s second father-in-law, who may also have been insane, it is certainly Douglas of whom he spoke when he called her “the most obedient child in the world” and blamed her father’s odious behavior toward her for her death.
see ELIZABETH BASSETT; ELIZABETH CECIL; ELIZABETH DACRE; ELIZABETH HOME; ELIZABETH LEYBURNE; ELIZABETH MARNEY; ELIZABETH STAFFORD; ELIZABETH TYLNEY
Elizabeth Howard was the daughter of Thomas Howard, 2nd duke of Norfolk (1443-May 21, 1524) and Elizabeth Tylney (d. April 4, 1497). "To My Lady Elizabeth Howard" in "The Garland of Laurell" was probably composed by John Skelton in May 1495 during a visit to her father at Sheriff Hutton Castle, although it was not published until 1523. In this poem, he compares her to Cressida, as Alison Weir observes, possibly for her beauty but possibly for her promiscuity, and to Irene, for her artistic ability. The ladies Skelton honored in verse supposedly made him a laureate's garland of silk, gold, and pearls. Elizabeth married Sir Thomas Boleyn of Blickling, Norfolk (c.1477-March 12, 1539) c.1499 and had by him three famous children, Mary (c.1498-July 1543), Anne (c.1501-x.May 19, 1536) and George (1503-x.May 19, 1536). There were at least two others, Thomas, probably the eldest, who lived until around 1520, and Henry (d.yng). There is no evidence that Elizabeth served Elizabeth of York and although she has long been believed to have been at court as a lady in waiting to Catherine of Aragon, Alison Weir points out in her biography of Mary Boleyn that there is no specific reference to her being there. She suggests that it is Anne Tempest, wife of Edward Boleyn, who was part of Queen Catherine's household. Both Lady Boleyns were at the Field of Cloth of Gold in 1520. In the nineteenth century, It was believed that Elizabeth Howard died young (on December 14, 1512) and that her children were raised by a stepmother, but documentary evidence has disproved this. Nor was she ever Henry VIII's mistress. She died at the Abbot of Reading's place beside Baynard's Castle in London and was buried in the Howard Chapel in Lambeth Parish Church on April 7, 1538.
September 18, 1534)
Elizabeth Howard was the daughter of Thomas Howard, 2nd duke of Norfolk (1443-May 21, 1524) and Agnes Tylney (1477-May 1545). In 1520, during the Field of Cloth of Gold, she was at Richmond with her mother, two of her sisters, and four-year-old Princess Mary. In 1523,she was one of the "bevy of ladies" with Elizabeth Stafford, Countess of Surrey, as described in the poem A Goodly Garland or Chaplet of Laurel by John Skelton. She married Henry Radcliffe (c.1506-February 17, 1557). He became Lord Fitzwalter in 1529 (and earl of Sussex in 1542). Elizabeth is a leading candidate to be "The Lady Ratclif" of the Holbein sketch, although the identity of the sitter is by no means certain. Elizabeth’s children by Radcliffe were Thomas, 3rd earl (1526-June 9, 1583), Henry, 4th earl (c.1530-December 14, 1593), and Robert. In 1532, she was one of six ladies who accompanied Anne Boleyn to Calais. Portrait: drawing by Hans Holbein the Younger.
HOWARD (d. January
Elizabeth Howard was the daughter of Charles Howard, earl of Notthingham (1536-December 14, 1624) and Catherine Carey (c.1546-February 24, 1603). She was a maid of honor to Queen Elizabeth from 1576-83. On April 13, 1583 at Cold Harbour, with the queen in attendance, she married Sir Robert Southwell of Woodrising (1563-October 12, 1599) by whom she had two daughters, Elizabeth (c.1586-September 13, 1631) who became a maid of honor to Queen Elizabeth in 1599, and Catherine, and a son, Thomas (1599-1643). On October 26, 1604, Lady Southwell remarried, taking as her second husband John Stewart, earl of Carrick (d.c. 1644). They had a daughter, Margaret. Elizabeth was buried on January 31, 1646 at Greenwich, Kent. Portrait: 1582, unknown artist.
HOWARD (1586-April 17, 1658)
Elizabeth Howard was the eldest daughter of Thomas Howard, 1st earl of Suffolk (1561-1626) and Katherine Knyvett (c.1564-1638). On December 2, 1605, less than two months after the death of his first wife, Dorothy Bray, Elizabeth married William Knollys, baron Knollys of Greys, who was created Viscount Wallingford in 1616 and, in 1626, earl of Banbury (c.1545-1632). In 1613, they entertained Anne of Denmark at Caversham Park, Oxfordshire. The entertainment included a masque by Thomas Campion. Elizabeth was a staunch Catholic with a domineering personality. In 1618, her parents were accused of embezzlement and later her sister Frances was charged with the murder of Thomas Overbury. After Frances and her husband were released from the Tower of London in 1622, they were confined for a time Caversham Park by order of King James. Later, Frances was a frequent visitor to both Caversham Park and Rotherfield Greys. Elizabeth had two sons, Edward (April 10,1627-1645) and Nicholas (January 3, 1631-March 14, 1674). Some genealogies list an unnamed daughter (1606-1610). There has been some question cast as to the paternity of her sons, since she was suspected of carrying on an affair with Edward Vaux, 4th baron Vaux of Harrowden (September 13, 1588-September 8, 1661) and both boys were born at Harrowden Hall, Northamptonshire. According to Godfrey Anstruther in Vaux of Harrowden, Elizabeth had intended to marry Vaux back in 1605 but their plans were disrupted by the discover of the Gunpowder Plot. Anstruther gives the date of her marriage to Knollys as January 19, 1606. He also claims that Knollys was unaware of the birth of the two boys until well after each confinement. Less than five weeks after her first husband died, Elizabeth married Vaux. She was buried at Dorking, Surrey. Portrait: attributed to Daniel Mytens, c.1618-20.
Emily Howard is one of two mystery ladies whose portraits have survived but not their place in the family tree. Emily is said to have been a daughter of Thomas Howard, earl of Suffolk (1561-1626) and Katherine Knyvett (c.1564-1638). The portrait is dated c.1623 and gives the sitter's age as thirty-four. It is attributed to the school of Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger. Another portrait in the same collection, dated c.1623-30, is signed by Cornelius Johnson and was identified at a later date as Gertrude Howard, another daughter of Thomas Howard and Katherine Knyvett, who are generally credited with having had twelve children.
see FRANCES GOULDWELL; FRANCES MEWTAS; FRANCES de VERE
FRANCES HOWARD (1553/4-1598)
Frances Howard was the daughter of William Howard, baron Howard of Effingham (1510-January 21,1573) and Margaret Gamage (1515-May 1,1581). According to Charlotte Merton's The Women who served Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth, she lived in France for a time as a young girl. She became a maid of honor c.1571 and served Queen Elizabeth in that post for many years. She spoke fluent French and had many admirers. In the 1570s, Thomas Coningsby was in love with her and in a tournament carried a banner with the device of a white lion (an allusion to the Howard family crest) devouring a young cony and the words “Call you this love?” In 1573, she was her sister Douglas’s rival for the earl of Leicester’s attentions but by 1575 had become the object of a nearly ten-year courtship by Edward Seymour, earl of Hertford (1539-April 6, 1621). Between August 1584 and January 1585, Frances was on the list of possible brides for James VI of Scotland, since she was the queen's cousin. After her marriage to Hertford in December 1585 at Richmond, the queen still kept her "Franke" at court. In 1591, the Hertfords entertained Queen Elizabeth at Elvetham. Shortly thereafter, when Hertford attempted to establish the legitimacy of his sons by his first wife, Lady Catherine Grey, he was imprisoned. Lady Hertford was said to have gone mad with fear for his life. The queen wrote to reassure her that she had no intention of executing Hertford. Frances returned to court and subsequently obtained her husband's release. When she died, he erected a monument 38' high to her memory in St. Benedict's Chapel in Westminster Abbey. She is not, however, mentioned on his monument, which he shares only with Catherine Grey. Portrait: effigy in Westminster Abbey.
FRANCES HOWARD (December 1566-July 1628)
Frances Howard was the daughter of Charles Howard, earl of Nottingham (1536-December 14, 1624) and Catherine Carey (d. February 25, 1603). According to a story told by Sir Jerome Bowes in about 1600, he suggested to Ivan the Terrible of Russia in late 1583 (when he was English ambassador to Muscovy), that the queen of England had another "more charming" cousin than Lady Mary Hastings, namely Frances Howard, who might make the czar a good wife. Fortunately for Frances, Ivan died in March 1584. There were also rumors of a match with King James of Scotland. She married Henry FitzGerald, 12th earl of Kildare (1562-August 1, 1597), in 1589 and had two daughters, Bridget and Elizabeth. After his death, she returned to England and became a lady in waiting, vying with a maid of honor, Margaret Radcliffe (and possibly Elizabeth Russell, Bridget and Susan de Vere, and Elizabeth Spencer), for the attentions of Henry Brooke, baron Cobham (November 22, 1564-January 24, 1618/19). She wed Cobham in May 1601 but they did not remain on good terms long. They separated less than six months after the marriage contract was signed, although David McKeen, in his biography of Cobham's father, credits her with "an inexplicable passion for her unlovable husband." Frances herself seems to have inspired a good deal of dislike, even hatred. The earl of Essex reportedly called her "the spider of the court" and she also feuded for many years with Elizabeth Throckmorton, Lady Raleigh, over her refusal to help Elizabeth win the queen's forgiveness for her clandestine marriage. At Elizabeth Tudor's death, Frances was one of two countesses appointed to lead a delegation of ladies to meet Queen Anne. They were supposed to wait in Berwick, but Frances rushed on to Edinburgh in the hope of winning a position in the Privy Chamber. She did serve as Princess Elizabeth's governess for a time. Frances's husband was involved in the plot to assassinate King James and was sent to the Tower in July 1603 and condemned in November. Frances attempted to obtain a pardon for him, but only in order to save the estate. According to the History of Parliament, his lands were granted to his estranged wife in April 1604, but another source says that it was after his death that she was granted lands worth £5000, to be held in trust for her by her father and two friends. Cobham was allowed to visit Bath for his health in September 1617 and again in July 1618. He died, destitute, in a lodging house near the Tower. Frances continued to occupy Cobham Hall, where the king visited her in 1622. In 1620, she took charge of her granddaughter, Mary Stuart O'Donnell, intending to make the girl her heir, but Mary ran away in 1626 rather than marry the Protestant suitor Frances had picked out for her. Frances signed herself "Frances Cobham of Kildare" after her marriage to Lord Cobham. Portrait: by Marcus Gheeraerts.
FRANCES HOWARD (July 27, 1578-October 8, 1639)
Frances Howard was the daughter of Thomas Howard, viscount Bindon (c.1520-January 28,1582) and his third wife, Mabel Burton (1540-1580) and was born at Lytchett, Dorset. She married Henry Prannell (d. December 10,1599), the son of a wealthy vintner, in 1592. In 1597, Frances began to consult Simon Forman the astrologer. According to Forman’s records, she was hoping to begin an affair with the earl of Southampton. In April, 1600, widowed, she was being courted by William Eure, heir to baron Eure, but on May 27,1601 she married Edward Seymour, earl of Hertford (1539-April 6,1621), whose previous wife had also been named Frances Howard (see above). When their marriage became known, another former suitor, Sir George Rodney of Somerset, killed himself. After Hertford’s death, Frances married Lodovic Stuart, duke of Lennox (September 29,1574-February 16,1624) and became the only duchess in the kingdom. Later her husband was also created duke of Richmond, earning her the nickname the “double duchess.” Biography: Oxford DNB entry under "Stuart [née Howard; married name Prannell], Frances." Portraits: an effigy on the monument she erected to herself and her third husband in Henry VII’s chapel in Westminster Abbey; portraits painted in 1611, 1615, c.1620, studio of Anthony Van Dyke c.1624-33; after Anthony Van Dyke c.1633.
FRANCES HOWARD (May 31,1593-August 23,1632)
Frances Howard was the daughter of Thomas Howard, baron Howard of Walden and later earl of Suffolk (August 24,1561-May 28,1626) and Katherine Knyvett (1564-September 8,1638) and on January 5, 1605 married Robert Devereux, earl of Essex (1591-September 14,1646). On this occasion, Ben Jonson and Inigo Jones’s Hymenaei was performed, probably in the banqueting house at Whitehall. In 1613, she had the marriage annulled in order to marry Robert Carr, earl of Somerset (1587-1645). They were both arrested, tried, and imprisoned when it was revealed that Frances had planned the murder of one Thomas Overbury in order to advance her plans. For accounts of the Overbury murder see Beatrice White’s Cast of Ravens and Anne Somerset's Unnatural Murder: Poison at the Court of King James; Oxford DNB entry under "Howard [married names Devereux, Carr], Frances." NOTE: the DNB gives the year of her birth as 1590. Portraits: there have been a number of portraits said to be Frances Howard, countess of Somerset. Some have been discredited. The one below is in the National Portrait Gallery and is attributed to William Larkin. It is dated c.1612-15.
see ISABEL LEGH
JANE HOWARD (1537?-1593)
Jane Howard was the eldest daughter of Henry Howard, earl of Surrey (1517-x.January 19,1547) and Frances Vere (1517-June 30,1577). Robert Hutchinson, in House of Treason, a history of the dukes of Norfolk, states that Jane was the youngest child, born in February 1547, three weeks after her father's execution. Other sources report that Lady Surrey miscarried in 1547 and was ill afterward or that Margaret Howard was born in 1547. What is known of Jane's early life supports her position as the oldest sister. Her early education was in the hands of Hadrianus Junius. After 1547, she and her sisters Catherine (1539-April 7,1596) and Margaret (January 1543-March 17,1592), were entrusted to their aunt, Mary Howard, duchess of Richmond (1517-December 9,1557). The girls were educated by John Foxe, who taught them Greek and Latin and had them compose poetry. He equated Jane’s learning with that of the most learned men of her times. Jane went to court in 1558/9 as one of Queen Elizabeth's first six maids of honor. Around 1563, she married Charles Neville, 6th earl of Westmorland (August 8,1542-November 16,1601). They had four daughters, Margaret (1564-1594+), Anne, Catherine, and Eleanor, and a son, Thomas (1565-1601+). In 1569 the earls of Northumberland, Westmorland, Cumberland, and Derby plotted a rebellion to rescue Mary queen of Scots, marry her to Jane’s brother, Thomas Howard, 4th duke of Norfolk, and restore Catholicism to England. When the duke was arrested, he advised the earls to abandon their plans, but in a meeting between Northumberland and Westmorland at Branspeth it was Lady Westmorland who persuaded the two earls to take up arms. Of her brother’s defection she is said to have remarked, “What a simple man the duke is to begin a matter and not go through with it.” To the earls, who were considering flight or submission to the queen, she said, “We and our country were shamed forever, that now in the end we should seek holes to creep into.” She goaded them until, on November 14,1569, they began the first uprising England had seen since Wyatt’s abortive rebellion in 1554. Lady Northumberland and Lady Westmorland were with the troops when they took the city of Durham and sacked the cathedral there, tearing up all the English translations of the Bible and all the Reformation prayer books they could find. Queen Mary’s removal to Coventry and the lack of support they found as they moved slowly southeast forced them to turn back at Tadcaster and begin a rapid retreat. From Naworth Castle, Westmorland slipped across the border into Scotland, taking refuge there until he could escape to the Netherlands. Lady Westmorland, however, remained in England and wrote to Queen Elizabeth for leave to come to court. In part, she wrote: “Innocency and the great desire I have had to do my humble duty to her Highness . . . emboldeneth me to continue this my suit.” Her request was denied. She was sent to Kenninghall, Norfolk and held there, a virtual prisoner, for the rest of her life. She was paid a pension of £200 during her husband's exile. This was increased to £300 in 1577. Retha M. Warnicke, in Women of the Renaissance and Reformation, interprets Jane's actions differently. She maintains Jane remained a protestant and was angry because, after her husband had been lured into treason, his fellow conspirators were prepared to abandon him. Northumberland, after his capture, then blamed Jane, without foundation, for egging on the rebels. According to Warnicke, Jane was investigated and exonerated but she gives only secondary sources for this conclusion. Jane was buried at Kenninghall on June 30, 1593. Portrait: effigy on her father's tomb. She is on the near side with her sister Catherine in the middle and her sister Margaret on the far side.
see JOYCE CULPEPPER
Katherine Howard was the daughter of Thomas Howard, 2nd duke of Norfolk (1553-May 21, 1524) and Agnes Tylney (1477-May 1545). In 1520, during the Field of Cloth of Gold, she was at Richmond with her mother, two of her sisters, and four-year-old Princess Mary. At the age of six she was betrothed to Rhys ap Griffith of Carew Castle, Pembrokeshire (c.1505-x. January 4, 1531/2) and married him when she was fourteen. Their children, who followed the Welsh practice of using their father's first name as their last name (ap Rhys or Rice) were Thomas (c.1522-1544), Griffith (b.1526), Agnes (d. August 19, 1574), Mary, and one other daughter. Sir Rhys was arrested on October 2, 1531 and accused of plotting to kill the king. He was beheaded. Katherine's second husband, married in 1532, was Henry Daubeney, earl of Bridgewater (December 1493-April 8, 1548). She was his second wife. He'd had no children by his first marriage and this second union also proved childless (although TudorPlace.com.ar gives them three unnamed children). Barbara J. Harris in "Sisterhood, Friendship and the Power of English Aristocratic Women 1450-1550," in Women and Politics in Early Modern England, 1540-1700, edited by James Daybell, reports that Lady Daubeney sent all three of her daughters to her mother to raise. Daubeney was reportedly in poor health by 1534 and trying to get rid of his wife. They were already living apart. He may have thought he could get an annulment and marry again in the hope of a son to inherit or they may simply have been incompatible. In any case, in 1535, he offered her all her own lands and £100/year. In the winter of 1535/6, however, she wrote to Lord Cromwell that her only income came from Queen Anne, her niece. She also claimed that efforts had been made to discredit her with the queen. Daubeney, meanwhile, was pleading financial hardship. By March 1536, however, the queen's father, the earl of Wiltshire, had loaned him £400. It is not clear if Queen Anne's generosity extended to having her aunt at court, but we next hear of her nearly two years after Anne’s execution. On April 7, 1538, Katherine was chief mourner at the funeral of her half sister Elizabeth, Lady Wiltshire. In 1540 there were rumors that Katherine and her husband might reconcile. Reconciled or not, she was at court when another niece, Catherine Howard, was queen, and when Catherine was arrested, so was Katherine. She was indicted for misprision of treason along with her mother, her brother William, and William's wife (Margaret Gamage). Katherine was buried in the Howard Chapel in Lambeth on May 11, 1554.
Katherine Howard was the daughter of William Howard, 1st baron Howard of Effingham (1510-January 21, 1573) and Margaret Gamage (1515-May 1,1581). Katherine was a maid of honor to Queen Elizabeth as a young woman and remained in the queen’s service and unmarried until her death. Her sisters Mary and Frances Howard were also maids of honor.
see KATHERINE BROUGHTON; KATHERINE KNYVETT
see MARGARET AUDLEY; MARGARET DOUGLAS; MARGARET GAMAGE; MARGARET MANNING; MARGARET MUNDY; MARGARET STEWART
MARGARET HOWARD (1506?-1554?)
Margaret Howard was the illegitimate daughter of Thomas Howard, 3rd duke of Norfolk (1473-February 24, 1554). In about 1523, she married William Timperley of Hintlesham, Suffolk (c.1489-April 1,1528). They had four sons, Thomas (1523/4-1594), William (c.1525-c.1606), Nicholas, and Henry. When her husband died, her eldest son became the ward of her father the duke. In 1546, Margaret married, as his third wife, Sir Henry D’Oyly of Pond Hall, Hadleigh, Suffolk (c.1493-February 13, 1563). One D’Oyly genealogy gives her a previous marriage to Edmund White of Little Porringland, Norfolk, in 1532, and two daughters, Anne White (1534-1592) and Mary D’Oyly, but this same source names a Thomas (1474-1510) and Margaret Howard (1476-1531) as the parents of Margaret Howard D’Oyly. The 3rd duke of Norfolk made provision for an illegitimate daughter in his will, but she was a young child, not a twice (or thrice) married woman.
(c.1514-October 10, 1572)
Margaret Howard was the daughter of Lord Edmund Howard (c.1479-March 19, 1539) and Joyce Culpepper (c.1480-1527+) and the sister of Queen Catherine Howard. The Oxford DNB gives a date of 1530 for her marriage to Sir Thomas Arundell of Wardour (c.1502-x. February 26, 1551/2) but various genealogies say they wed on either November 1531 or on September 5, 1533. The date on their marriage settlement was November 20, 1530. The DNB and History of Parliament likewise give October 10, 1571 as Margaret's date of death, but other records indicate that she was buried on October 20, 1572 in Tisbury, Wiltshire. Just to make things more confusing, Margaret is sometimes said to be Joyce Culpepper's daughter by her first marriage, to Ralph Legh (d.1510) and born in 1505. The Oxford DNB gives the c.1514 date and says she was the daughter of Lord Edmund. Margaret was at court during the time her sister was queen. During the reign of Edward VI, when the duke of Somerset was Lord Protector, Sir Thomas became involved in rebellion and treason. He was executed for his part in an alleged conspiracy to assassinate John Dudley, at that time earl of Warwick but soon to be duke of Northumberland. Arundell's estate, including Margaret's widow's third, was forfeit to the Crown. In June 1553, her dower rights and some of her husband's lands were restored to her and she was granted a pension of £20 a year. With a total of twenty-six manors, she was a wealthy woman. Her children by Arundell were Sir Matthew (1535-December 1538), Margaret, Dorothy (c.1535-c.1578), Robert (b. January 1537), Sir Charles (c.1539-December 9, 1587), and Jane. Portrait: Because of its possible descent through her daughter Dorothy, who married Sir Henry Weston in 1559, Margaret has been suggested as a possible subject of a portrait of an unknown woman in black, attributed to William Scrots, which was at Sutton Place for many years. It would have to have been painted after she was widowed.
MARGARET HOWARD (January 1543?-March 17,1592)
Margaret Howard was the youngest daughter of Henry Howard, earl of Surrey (1517-x.January 19,1547) and Frances Vere (1517-June 30,1577). Some accounts have her born posthumously. After her father’s execution for treason, she and her sisters, Jane and Catherine, were brought up by their aunt, Mary Howard, duchess of Richmond (1517-December 9,1557). The girls were educated by John Foxe, who taught them Greek and Latin and had them compose poetry. After Queen Mary succeeded to the throne in 1553, Margaret was briefly in the household of her grandfather, Thomas Howard, 3rd duke of Norfolk (1473-August 1554). Margaret married Henry Scrope, 9th baron Scrope of Bolton (c.1534-June 13, 1592) after his first wife died in November 1558. They had two sons, Thomas, 10th baron Scrope (1567-September 2, 1609) and Henry (c.1569-September 5,1625). When Mary Stewart first fled from Scotland into England her earliest prison was Carlisle Castle, where she was in the keeping of Lady Scrope. She was there by May 18,1568 and was moved to Bolton Castle in Yorkshire by mid-July. On February 3,1569, the queen of Scots arrived at Tutbury Castle, where she was turned over to the keeping of the earl and countess of Shrewsbury. Mary’s biographer, Antonia Fraser, remarks that the Scots queen was surrounded by Protestants at Bolton, so it may be that Margaret Howard, unlike her older sisters, was permanently converted from the Catholicism of her father and grandfather to the Protestantism of her aunt. In June 1569, however, Margaret accompanied her husband to a meeting at Tattershall, Lincolnshire with her sister Catherine and Catherine’s husband, Henry Berkeley, 7th baron Berkeley (1534-1613), a gathering perceived by some to be held to plan the Northern Rebellion, in which Margaret’s sister Jane, as countess of Westmorland, was to play a major role. When Scrope received an appeal for help from Westmorland, he proved his loyalty to Queen Elizabeth by forwarding it to her. Portraits: a double portrait with her son Thomas (detail below); portrait at Knole; miniature based on painting at Knole.
MARGARET HOWARD (1562-August 19, 1591)
Margaret Howard was the daughter of Thomas Howard, 4th duke of Norfolk (March 10, 1538-June 2, 1572) and his second wife, Margaret Audley (1539-January 10, 1564). Her father's execution for treason when she was ten limited her choice of husbands but in February 1569/80 she married Robert Sackville of Bolbrooke and Buckhurst, Sussex and Knole, Kent (1561-February 27, 1609), later Lord Buckhurst and earl of Dorset. They had three sons and three daughters, including Richard (1590-1624), Edward (1591-1652), Anne, and Cecily. After her death, Robert Southwell published a small volume in her honor and Sackville described his late wife as "a lady . . . of as great virtue . . . as is possible for any man to wish to be matched withal." He asked to be buried at Withyham "as near to my first dearly beloved wife . . . as can be" and ordered that £200 to £300 be spent on their tomb, with effigies of them both. A devout Catholic, she influenced his religious beliefs.
MARGARET HOWARD (1572-1641)
Margaret Howard was the daughter of Charles Howard, earl of Nottingham (1536-December 14, 1624) and Catherine Carey (c.1546-February 24, 1603). On December 13, 1587, she married Richard Leveson of Lilleshall, Shropshire and Trentham, Staffordshire (1570-August 2, 1605). He became a naval officer serving under her father and was knighted in 1596. They had one daughter. At some point before 1600, her father-in-law, Walter Leveson (d. October 20, 1602) was accused of sorcery and trying to poison several people, including Margaret, by Robert Wayland. Walter Leveson, who had already faced charges of piracy, wrote to the earl of Essex and to Robert Cecil for help. In one letter he accused his son and a girl named Ethel of conspiring against him. By 1602, Richard Leveson was living with his mistress, Mary Fitton, at Perton, Staffordshire. He had two children by her. By that time, Margaret had suffered a mental breakdown. After her husband died, she became the ward first of her brother William (d.1615) and then of her father. It is not clear what happened to her after he died.
see MARY DACRE; MARY FITZALAN
MARY HOWARD (1519-December 9,1557)
Mary Howard was the daughter of Thomas Howard, 3rd duke of Norfolk (1473-August 25,1554) and Elizabeth Stafford (1499-November 30,1558). She was a maid of honor to her cousin, Anne Boleyn and was married to King Henry VIII’s illegitimate son, Henry Fitzroy, duke of Richmond (June 18,1519-July 22,1536) at Hampton Court on November 26,1533, but they never lived together. In fact, King Henry tried to use non-consummation of the marriage as an excuse not to support Mary in her widowhood. By 1540, however, she had been granted a number of former church properties and had an income in excess of £744 per annum. Following Fitzroy's death, Mary lived primarily at Kenninghall when she was not at court and was at the center of a literary circle that included her brother, Henry Howard, earl of Surrey and Lady Margaret Douglas. She was part of the household of Catherine Howard but send back to Kenninghall in November 1541 when the queen's household was disbanded. There was talk of a marriage with Thomas Seymour, Queen Jane’s brother, as early as 1538 and the idea was broached again in 1546, but Surrey was violently opposed to the idea and Mary does not seem to have liked it much herself. Her brother went so far as to suggest that if the family wanted to use Mary to advance their interests at court, she should become King Henry’s mistress rather than Seymour's wife. In December 1546, when Mary’s father and brother were arrested on charges of treason, she was forced to give evidence against them, but managed to say very little of use. After Surrey was executed, Mary was given charge of his children. She established a household at Reigate and employed John Foxe to educate them. Unlike most of the rest of the Howards, Mary adoped the New Religion, which meant she fell out of favor when Queen Mary came to the throne. She did remain close to her father, however, and when he died he left her £500. She was buried with her husband in St. Michael's church, Framlingham, Suffolk, but their tomb was left unfinished at the duke of Norfolk's death and has no effigies. Biography: there is none of Mary, but those written about her father, husband, and brother give some further details of her life; Oxford DNB entry under "Fitzroy [née Howard], Mary." For her writing, see Elizabeth Heale, ed., The Devonshire Manuscript: A Woman's Book of Courtly Poetry. Portrait: Hans Holbein’s sketch of “The Lady of Richmond” is incomplete but is the only likeness we have of Mary. It is not certain when it was drawn or why it was not completed.
HOWARD (d. August
Mary Howard was the daughter of William Howard, 1st baron Howard of Effingham (1510-January 21, 1573) and Margaret Gamage (1515-May 1,1581). Dates given for her birth range from 1537 to 1548. She was a maid of honor to Queen Elizabeth before 1566. In that year, the queen presented her with a purple velvet loose gown, and at some point before his death that year, poet Richard Edwards wrote of her "Howarde is not haughte/But of such smylinge cheare/That wolde aleve eche gentill harte/His love to holde full clere." There were rumors that she had secretly married Sir Thomas Southwell (c.1542-c.1572), and although they both denied it, the matter was taken seriously enough to require investigation by the Archbishop of Canterbury. Once he determined that no marriage had taken place, Mary married Edward Sutton, 4thbaron Dudley (c.1513-July 9, 1586), in December 1571, as his third wife. Her sister, Douglas, visited Dudley Castle on occasion and was rumored to have given birth to a child by Robert Dudley, earl of Leicester there, but not the son, Robert (b.1574) who lived to adulthood. Queen Elizabeth visited the Dudleys at Dudley Castle on August 12, 1576. They had no children. Mary was her husband's executor, but his will gave precedence to his creditors over his widow and younger children. She remarried in 1587. Her second husband was Richard Mompesson (1548-1627) and she was the first of his three wives. She was buried in St. Margaret’s, Westminster, as were many others of the queen’s ladies.
HOWARD (d. 1603+)
Said to be the Lord Chamberlain’s granddaughter (that would be William, 1st baron Howard of Effingham), Lady Mary Howard was at court as a maid of honor from 1590-1603. Records are unclear as to her parents names. Although she does not appear on lists of their children, she may have been the daughter of William Howard of Lingford (c.1540-September 2,1600) and Frances Gouldwell (d.c.1614). Another possiblity is the Lord Chamberlain’s younger son Thomas Howard (c.1561-1600), about whom little is known. The Lord Chamberlain also had two other younger sons, Henry and Richard, for whom I cannot find dates and therefore cannot tell if they died young or lived long enough to marry and father a daughter. Joan Barbara Greenbaum Goldsmith's unpublished dissertation, All the Queen's Women, identifies Mary as the daughter of Catherine Carey (c.1546-February 4, 1603) and Charles Howard, earl of Nottingham (1536-December 14, 1624), which makes more sense, but so far I have not been able to find a list of their children that includes a Mary. Aside from the dearth of information about her parents, however, there is a great deal known about Mary Howard. A letter from William Fenton to John Harington in 1597 tells Harington that Fenton has spoken to the queen twice since Easter and that both times she spoke “vehemently and with great wrath” of Lady Mary Howard. Mary had refused to bear the queen’s mantle when the queen wished to walk in the garden and made an unseemly answer that “did breed much choler” in her mistress. On other occasions, Mary failed in other duties—carrying the cup of grace during dinner in the privy chamber and not attending the queen when she went to prayers. Worse, she caught the attention of “the young Earl.” This may have been Essex, but is just as likely to have been Southampton. In either case, the queen was not pleased. Fenton seems to indicate that Mary had a sister, Jane, who had been a maid of honor before her marriage. Sir John Harington (1560-1612), in writing to Robert Markham in 1606, recalled another incident “that fell out when I was a boy,” that seems to have involved this same Mary Howard, although in the 1590s he would hardly still be “a boy.” Still, the story does not seem to fit the first Mary Howard (see above). According to Harington, she had “a rich border powdered with golde and pearle, and a velvet suite belonging thereto.” The queen, thinking it exceeded her own, sent for Mary’s “rich vesture, which she put on herself, and came forthe the chamber amonge the Ladies; the kirtle and border was far too shorte for her Majesties height; and she askede every one, How they likede her new-fancied suit? At lengthe she asked the owner herself, If it was not made too short and ill-becoming? — Which the poor Ladie did presentlie consente to. ‘Why then if it become not me, as being too short, I am minded it shall never become thee, as being too fine; so it fitteth neither well.’ This sharp rebuke abashed the Ladie, and she never adorned her herewith any more. I believe the vestment was laid up till after the Queenes death.” Another possibility for the subject of this tale, proposed by Charlotte Merton in The Women who served Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth, is Mary Dacre (June 4, 1563-April 7, 1578), first wife of Thomas Howard, 1st baron Howard of Walden. (see MARY DACRE).
(1485-December 14, 1512)
Muriel Howard was the daughter of Thomas Howard, 2nd duke of Norfolk (1443-May 21, 1524) and Elizabeth Tylney (d. April 4, 1497). She was at Sheriff Hutton Castle in 1495 when John Skelton composed his poem "The Garland of Laurell" (published 1523). She married John Grey, viscount Lisle (April 1480-September 9, 1505) in June 1504 and had one daughter, Elizabeth (1505-1519). Muriel married second Sir Thomas Knyvett of Buckenden or Budkenham, Norfolk (d. August 10, 1512) and was the mother of Edmund (1507/8-1550/1), Ferdinando (b.1509), Henry (d. March 30, 1547), Anthony, Catherine, and Anne. Her will was written October 13, 1512 and proved January 12, 1512/13. She bequeathed "all my three sons and two daughters to the King's Highness, together with my wedding ring to him, desiring him to be a good Lord to them."
AGNES HOWE (1583-1610+)
Agnes Howe was the daughter of John Howe (d.1604+), a barber-surgeon who owned a house close to St. Gregory's in London, and Agnes Harrison. She was the niece of Mrs. Margaret (née Harrison) Sharles (1546-September 11, 1600), a wealthy, childless widow. When Mrs. Sharles died, she left Agnes a magnificent dowry. The house in Newgate Market, her shop, the stock in it, and the residue of the estate after other bequests amounted to an inheritance worth between £2000 and £3000. Mrs Sharles (see her entry under MARGARET HARRISON), mindful that her niece was only seventeen, set up conditions. She would not inherit until she was twenty and she could not marry before that. Further, she was to be guided by the minister of Christchurch, George Lynde, and by George Kevall, the notary who had drawn up the late William Sharles's will in 1590. Agnes's father, however, posted a bond of £2000 to take charge of managing his daughter's estate until she turned twenty. He did not have £2000, nor did he have any scruples about playing one potential suitor against the other. He won the cooperation of one of the officials of the prerogative court, the body that decided on the administration of estates, by promising that Agnes would go to stay in his house in the country and there be married to one of his sons. This plan fell through, but with the help of his brother, Peter Howe, his sister, Joan Darrell, alias Copprans, and Peter Howe's daughter, Agnes Shaw, he encouraged other suitors, especially those willing to sign bonds to him. Agnes had at least five suitors whose names have not survived, but one Thomas Field of Dingwell, Hertfordshire, went through a betrothal ceremony with Agnes on October 3, 1600, after which, on the tenth, he signed bonds to Howe to lease Harrow to him and make over all the goods in the shop to him within two days of his marriage to Agnes. Henry Jones of Gloucester also claimed to have been betrothed to Agnes, and he made an attempt to carry her away with him. It failed. Unbeknownst to either of these men, Agnes had been betrothed to another man, John Flaskett, a bookbinder/stationer who lived in Knightrider Street, since August 1600—before her aunt died. When the three suitors became aware of the situation and lawsuits threatened, John Howe consulted John Milward (1568-August 1,1609), a doctor of civil law and a preacher at Christchurch in Newgate Street. He was a colleague of George Lynde and with the approval of Lynde and George Kevall, but not John Howe, Milward married Agnes himself in the church in Barnet, Hertfordshire where his brother was the minister. The other suitors seem to have given up, but Flaskett, outraged, took the case to Archbishop Whitgift and Bishop Bancroft. Under the law, a pre-contract was usually considered to be as binding as a marriage. In February 1603, Sir Julius Caesar heard the case and declared in favor of Flaskett. Meanwhile, George Chapman wrote a play titled The Old Joiner of Aldgate, in which there were several obvious parallels to the Howe-Flaskett-Milward case. Milward objected to the contents and the play was prohibited for several days. Chapman was called before the Star Chamber, but since the others involved in the case refused to admit that they recognized themselves in the characters, he was not prosecuted. In early 1604, the Star Chamber upheld the decision of the lower court, confirming the marriage between Agnes and John Flaskett. By this point, however, King James himself had taken an interest in the case. Early in his reign, he had appointed Milward as one of his chaplains. In May he ordered the case reviewed and on November 12, 1604 the ruling was in Milward's favor. Another play, Thomas Middleton's Michaelmas Term, produced soon afterward, may also have been based on this case. John and Agnes Milward, now officially husband and wife, moved into the Newgate Market house. They had three children, James, Mary, and Margaret. Milward remained at Christchurch, but he died in Scotland, where he was buried. His will was proved on August 28, 1609. Curiously, his biography in the Oxford DNB says only that he was involved in litigation in 1604 "for unknown reasons." After Milward died, King James gave an annuity of £100 to his wife and children. Agnes Milward of Christchurch, age 30, widow of John Milward, filed marriage intentions on October 27, 1610 to marry Thomas Proud, clerk, vicar of Enfield, Middlesex, a widower aged 44. The most complete account of the case, with many more details than I have include here, can be found in C. J. Sisson's, Lost Plays of Shakespeare's Age.
see MARGARET HARLESTONE
Anne Hubbard was a waiting gentlewoman to both Elizabeth of York and her daughter, Mary Tudor. In December 1515, when she was eighty, she was awarded an annuity of 100s.
Elizabeth Huddesfield was the daughter of Sir William Huddesfield of Shillingford, Devon (1429-March 20, 1499) and Katherine Courtenay (1443-January 12, 1515). She married Sir Anthony Poyntz of Iron Acton, Gloucestershire (c.1480-1535) in 1499. Their children were Mary, Giles, Sir Nicholas (1504-July 1577), Ferdinando, Robert, Margaret (1510-1545+), and Thomas. According to Alison Weir, in Henry VIII: The King and his Court, in September 1510, Elizabeth Poyntz was appointed Lady Mistress of the King's nursery, charged with overseeing the birth of Catherine of Aragon's first child and the care of the new baby. Weir identifies Elizabeth as the unmarried daughter of Sir Robert Poyntz (c.1450-1520), which would make her Sir Anthony's sister. Their mother was Margaret Woodville, sister of the king's grandmother. I have a problem with this identification because the choice of an unmarried woman to fill such a position makes little sense. The Lady Mistress supervised the wet nurse (and later the dry nurse) and the rockers. In later royal nurseries, the post was usually filled by the wife or widow of a knight. The baby, Prince Henry, was born in January 1511, at which time Mistress Poyntz was given a reward of £30. The baby died the following month. On August 1, 1511, Elizabeth Poyntz, described as "late nurse unto our dearest son the Prince," was granted an annuity of £20 for life, starting at Easter, 2 Henry VIII. The use of the term "nurse" rather than "Lady Mistress" in this grant suggests to me that Elizabeth, assuming she was Elizabeth Huddlesfield and not Elizabeth Poyntz, may actually have been the wet nurse, not the one in charge of the nursery. This also makes more sense of the earlier reward, and she would have met the requirement of having had a child of her own at about the same time Prince Henry was born. Giles Tremlett's recent biography of Catherine of Aragon supports this supposition and names Elizabeth Denton (née Jerningham) as Lady Governor (ie. Lady Mistress) of the prince's household. The entry in the History of Parliament for Nicholas Wykes, who married Sir Robert’s daughter Elizabeth c.1508, further supports this, since she’d have been Elizabeth Wykes in 1511. The entry also identifies Prince Henry’s nurse as Wykes’s sister-in-law. Elizabeth Huddesfield died before 1522, by which time her husband had remarried.
see BRIDGET COTTON
see ELEANOR SUTTON
HUDDLESTON or HUDDLESTONE (d.1598+)
Jane Huddleston was the daughter of Sir Edmund Huddleston of Sawston Hall, Cambridgeshire (d.1508) and Dorothy Beconsall. She married William Wiseman of Braddocks, Essex. Her mother-in-law, Jane Vaughan (d.1610) lived there with them from December 1585 until 1591, when she left to set up her own household at Bullocks as a recusant center. Jane Vaughan was arrested in 1593 and imprisoned until after Queen Elizabeth’s death in 1603. Meanwhile, Jane and William had a second house in Golding Lane, Holborn, which was raided on March 15, 1594. William was arrested and imprisoned in the Counter in Poultry, where Father Gerard was also being held. Jane bought an adjacent house to be close to them both. When William was released after paying a bribe, he moved in with her and they remained close to the prison until Gerard escaped some three and a half years later. He initially took shelter with them. After that, they returned to Braddocks and appear to have had no further difficulty with the authorities.
see JANE STAPLETON
see JOAN ASTLEY
see ELIZABETH GYLLYOTT.
Grisold or Grizel Hughes or Hewes was the daughter of Thomas Hughes of Uxbridge, Middlesex (d.1587) and Elizabeth Don (d.1590). She was married twice, the first time before 1588 to Edward Neville, 5th baron Bergavenny (1518-February 10,1589). After he died, at Uxbridge, she very quickly remarried, wedding Francis Clifford, second son of the 2nd earl of Cumberland (1559-January 21,1641), by whom she had four children: Margaret (c.1590-1622), George (d. yng), Henry (February 28, 1591/2-December 11, 1643), and Frances (b.c.1594). Although some sources say that she was the “Lady Neville” of “My Lady Neville’s Book,” this was most likely Elizabeth Bacon, second wife of Sir Henry Neville of Billingbear, Berkshire (d.1593). Not only was Grisold already remarried by 1591 when this manuscript was presented to “Lady Neville,” but she would never have been called Lady Neville in the first place. Her proper title would have been Lady Bergavenny throughout her brief first marriage. In 1605, Clifford succeeded his elder brother, making Grisold countess of Cumberland.
ANNE HUICKE (c.1546-1580+)
Anne Huicke was the daughter of Robert Huicke (Huick/Huike/Hewyke/Hewicke) (d. September 6, 1580), royal physician to Henry VIII, Katherine Parr, Edward VI, and Queen Elizabeth, and Elizabeth Slighfield (d. 1546+) In early 1546, Huicke tried to divorce his wife on the grounds that she was an "ill woman," which may mean he doubted he was the father of the daughter born to her around that time. When the judge, John Croke, found in favor of his wife, Huicke appealed to the Privy Council. Both parties testified at Greenwich on May 11 and 12, 1546, after which the consensus was that Huicke had exhibited "crueltie and circumvencion" for "little cause" on the part of his wife. The divorce was denied. Shortly after King Henry VIII died, a commission under Archbishop Cranmer reconsidered Huicke's request for a divorce. According to the entry in The History of Parliament, The House of Commons 1509-1558, the results are unknown but it is possible that Elizabeth and Huicke were reconciled. His daughter Atalanta was born in 1562. It is also possible that Elizabeth had died and he had remarried, but if so there is no record of this second marriage. He did marry again in 1575, by a license dated November 2, 1575, this time to Mary Woodcocke of London. In his will, dated August 21, 1580, Huicke divided his movable goods between his wife and a third daughter, Elizabeth, who was evidently old enough by that time to be named an executrix and therefore also, probably, the daughter of Elizabeth Slighfield. Huicke left his lands to Atalanta, who was married to William Chetwynd. Some sources say Anne was not mentioned in the will. Others say the two daughters who were mentioned were Atalanta and Anne, not Elizabeth. By 1575, Anne (or Anna) was married to Mark Steward of Heckfield, Hampshire and (later) of Stantney on the Isle of Ely in Cambridgeshire (1524-March 1604). They had three children, Huick, who died young, Simeon (July 31, 1575-February 10, 1632), and Mary. Simeon was born at Shinfield, Berkshire, where Anne and her husband lived, on and off, with her father during the last part of his life.
see ELIZABETH SLIGHFIELD
see ANNE WOODHOUSE
ELIZABETH HUNGATE (d.1620+)
Elizabeth Hungate was the daughter of William Hungate of Saxton, Yorkshire. Some older records confuse her with her sister Mary, who married Richard Cholmeley. It is Elizabeth, however, who is the subject of a portrait by Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger. She married first Sir Marmaduke Grimston of Grimston Garth, Yorkshire (d.1604), as his second wife. Thomas Grimston (d.1618) was her stepson. Her second husband was Sir Henry Browne of Kiddington, Oxfordshire (c.1562-1628), a younger son of the first viscount Montagu. She was his second wife, the first, Anne Catesby, having died in June 1592. Portrait: c.1620 by Marcus Gheeraerts the younger (Royal Albert Museum, Exeter).
see MARGERY FREEMAN
see AGNES COTELL
see ANNE BASSETT; ANNE DORMER; ANNE PERCY
see CECILY TUFTON
see ELIZABETH HUSSEY
Lucy Hungerford was the daughter of Sir Walter Hungerford of Farleigh Castle, Somersetshire (c.1526-1596) and Anne Dormer (1525-1603). When she was ten, her father sued her mother for divorce, claiming she had committed adultery with a neighbor and tried to poison him. Lady Hungerford was separated from her children and eventually went into exile in Flanders with other English Catholics. In about 1584, Lucy married John St. John of Lydiard Tregoze, Wiltshire (c.1552-1594). They had two sons, Walter (d.1597) and John (1585-1648) and six daughters, the youngest of whom was Lucy. After St. John died, his widow married her cousin, Sir Arthur Hungerford of Great Bedwyn, Wiltshire (1567-1627). Their children were Edward (1596-1648), Anne, and Bridget. Portraits: by an unknown artist c.1590; St. John Polyptych in St. Mary's Church (1615).
(c.1468-before July 10, 1533)
Mary Hungerford was the daughter of Sir Thomas Hungerford of Chippenham, Rowden, Sheldon (etc.), Wiltshire (x. January 17, 1468/9) and Anne Percy (d. July 5, 1522). She was suo jure 5th baroness Botreaux through her great-grandmother, and 4th baroness Hungerford through her father and baroness Moleyns through her grandmother. Described as a "wealthy West Country heiress," she married Edward, 2nd baron Hastings (November 26, 1466-November 1506/7) c.1479. They had three children, Anne (c.1485-November 1550), George, 3rd baron (1486/7-March 24, 1544), and William. The History of Parliament calls Mary "a woman of aristocratic bearing" who "aroused unfavorable comment by using her own title in preferment to her late husband's." She shared both Hastings' "sports and his quarrels," the latter chiefly with the Grey family. On May 1, 1509, Mary wed her second husband, Sir Richard Sacheverell of Ratcliffe-upon-Soar, Nottinghamshire (before 1469-April 14, 1534). They lived, by 1517, in apartments within the College of St. Mary in the Newark, Leicester. The appointment of Lord George Grey as dean of the college led to a decade of petty quarrels. Lady Hungerford, according to Mary L. Robinson's essay, "Court Careers and County Quarrels," let her dogs run free in the chapel, organized bear-baitings on the grounds, and allowed her servants to be rude to Grey's supporters. The rivalry grew so heated that Lady Hungerford complained because it was no longer safe for women to walk in the woodlands adjacent to the town. By the spring of 1525, Lady Hungerford and her husband took an armed escort of nearly two hundred men any time they traveled outside of Leicester and men came to blows on a market Saturday in July. For more details see Robinson's essay in Charles Carlton, ed., State, Sovereigns & Society. Lady Hungerford and her second husband were both prominent at court. She was still living June 30, 1530 but had died before July 10, 1533. Mary was buried in the collegiate church of St. Mary in the Newark, Leicester, under a pillar in a chapel off the south transept.
see URSULA MAIDENHEAD
see MARGARET WARNER
ALICE le HUNTE (d.1585+)
Alice le Hunte was the daughter of Richard le Hunte of Bradley Parva and Little Thurlow, Suffolk (d.1540) and Anne Knighton (d. December 23, 1558). She was the second wife of John Day of London (c.1522-July 23, 1584), a well known printer with a shop and house in Aldersgate in 1550. According to most accounts, each of his wives bore him thirteen children. Alice buried day in Little Bradley, Suffolk where a memorial brass commemorates them both. It is somewhat unique in the double meanings of his wording. Of day it says, "heere lies the Daye that darkness could not blynd when popish fogges had over cast the sunne" and of Alice "mourning long for being left alone set up his tombe, her self turned to a stone." Her second husband was William Stone of London and Segenhoe, Bedfordshire (d.1594/5), a wealthy haberdasher. His daughter Alice (1555-1622) by his first wife, Mercy Gray, married Stephen Soame (c.1544-1619) Alice’s half brother, who was Lord Mayor of London in 1598. Portrait: memorial brass in Little Bradley, Suffolk.
ANNE le HUNTE
see ANNE KNIGHTON
JANE le HUNTE
see JANE COLTE
see ALICE MORE
MARGARET HURLESTON (d.1566+)
Margaret Hurleston (or Hurleton) is said to have been the daughter of Nicholas Hurleston of Cheshire, clerk of the green cloth to Henry VIII. However, according to the History of Parliament entry for Nicholas Hurleston (d.1531), his only daughters, by second wife Anne Waring (1518-before 1544) were named Anne and Elizabeth. By 1536, Margaret had married Roger Walthall of Cheshire, by whom she had at least three children, Anthony (c.1536-before 1589), Thomas, and William. Her second husband was a Mr. Bristo, a London grocer, by whom she had a son named John. Her third husband, as his second wife, was Richard Chamberlain (d. November 19, 1566), an ironmonger who was a London alderman from 1560-66 and sheriff of London in 1561. In 1558 it was said that Margaret had nine children living. Chamberlain was a member of both the Russia Company and the Merchant Adventurers. He exported cloth to Antwerp and Spain and was wealthy enough to build a mansion in Coleman Street, London, in the parish of St. Olave. According to The Muscovy Merchants of 1555, he left Margaret £2200 and she carried on trading after his death, in particular importing sugar from Barbary.
February 27, 1598/9)
Joan Hurste was the daughter of John Hurste of Kingston on Thames, Surrey. Her first husband was William Mainwaring of Eastham, Essex (d. October 10, 1529). They had no children. After his death, she married Henry Bradshaw of Halton, Buckinghamshire (d. July 27, 1553), who was Chief Baron of the Exchequer under Henry VIII and Attorney General under Edward VI. They had eight children, including Benedict (d.c.1554), Bridget (1535-1580) and Christian (d.1557). In 1539, Bradshaw acquired the manor of Noke Place in Oxfordshire. As a widow, Joan repaired the church and built a new chapel, in which she was buried on March 1, 1598/9. In 1588, her granddaughter, Mary Fermor (daughter of Bridget), an orphan, was married from Joan's house in Noke, suggesting that she raised her grandchildren after their parents died in 1580. Portrait: her memorial brass in St. Giles, Noke, Oxfordshire shows both husbands and all her children and contains the following inscription: "Here lyeth the body of Johan Bradshawe, daughter and coheire of John Hurste of Kingston on Temes in the countie of surry gent, who had to her first husband William Manwayringe of Eastham in the county of Essex Gent, who died the 10 day of October Anno 1529 and to her second husband Henry Bradshawe Esq. late Lord Cheife Barron of The Exchequer, who had issue between them 4 sonnes & 4 daughters who dyed 27 Day of Julye 1553. The said Johan all her life was very charitable to the poore and purchased lands and rents forever to the use of the poor of the towne of Noke in the county of Oxon. & to Halton & Wendover in the county of Buck. and at her chardgs Newlie builte this chappell and dyed the 27th day of February Anno 1598. Anno Rne Elizabethe 41."
AGNES HUSSEY (d. October 20, 1588)
One online genealogy gives the parents of Agnes Hussey as John Hussey and Agnes Spence while another says she was the daughter of Giles Hussey and Jane Pigot and born in 1530 in Caythorpe, Kent. Yet another gives her birthplace as Shapwick. What is more certain is that she married three times, first to Roger More of Bichester (d.1551). Her second husband was Thomas Curzon of Waterperry, by whom she had a daughter, Mary (d. October 12, 1628). At some point after 1563, she married Sir Edward Saunders (d. November 12, 1576), who was a cousin of her second husband. Likenesses of Agnes are found on two memorials, one in Weston under Wetherley, Warwickshire with her third husband and the other in the church at Hatfield, Hertfordshire. The latter includes verses to her three husbands and her children.
Agnes or Anne Hussey was the daughter of John, 1st baron Hussey (1466-x. June 29, 1537) and Anne Grey (1493-1543). Dates for her birth range from c.1515 to 1528. She married Sir Humphrey Browne of Ridley Hall, Essex (d. December 5, 1562), a judge, as his third wife, after 1541. They had three daughters, Mary, Christian or Christiana (b.c.1554), and Katherine (d.1616?). Christian’s monument incorrectly lists her mother’s name as Mary. According to the Oxford DNB, Agnes was sued in 1572 for diverting water to her house in Cow Lane through a conduit installed by her late husband. Agnes may have been the second Lady Browne recorded as sending gifts to Mary Tudor (the other was Elizabeth Fitzgerald).
see ANNE GREY
BRIDGET HUSSEY (c.1514-January 12, 1601)
Bridget Hussey was the daughter of John, Lord Hussey of Sleaford (1466-xJune 29,1537) and Anne Grey (1493-1543). Some accounts give her birthdate as late as 1528. Her first husband was Sir Richard Morison (1510-March 17,1556), one of the men who had written virulent denunciations of her father and the Pilgrimage of Grace. They had two daughters, Elizabeth (1545-1611) and Jane Sybilla (1551-July 1615), and a son, Sir Charles (d.1599), but Morison also had a mistress, Lucy Harper (née Peckham). Under Edward VI, Morison was sent as Ambassador to Charles V. Bridget went with him and they remained on the Continent from 1550 until Edward’s death in 1553. Following a brief visit to England after Mary Tudor became queen, they returned to the Continent, this time as exiles. They settled in Strassburg, where Morison died. As a widow, Lady Morison returned to England and was allowed to claim her husband’s estate at Cassiobury, Hertfordshire. In 1561, she married Henry Manners, earl of Rutland (September 23, 1526-September 17, 1563), a widower. He died two years later, probably of the plague. On June 25,1566, she married a third time, to another widower, Francis Russell, 2nd earl of Bedford (1527-July 28,1585). She was with him at Berwick, where he was Captain, and probably accompanied him into Scotland to attend the christening of the future James I. Twenty years later, she served as chief mourner at the funeral of James’s mother, Mary queen of Scots, on June 20, 1587 at Peterborough. The Bedfords entertained Queen Elizabeth at Chenies on July 23, 1570 and at Woburn in July 1572. As dowager countess of Rutland and Bedford, she was a prominent social figure and an influential supporter of Puritan causes. She did not get along well with the earl of Bedford’s children, but she arranged brilliant matches for her own daughters. In 1588, she took over the upbringing of one of her second husband’s daughters, Lady Bridget Manners. She trained the girl to take a post as maid of honor to the queen the following year. Bridget Hussey lived the last part of her life at Woburn. She died on a Sunday, “well at the sermon in the afternoon and dead that night.” Her monument at Watford, Hertfordshire was moved to Chenies, Buckinghamshire, in the early 20th century.
ELIZABETH HUSSEY (c.1510-January 23, 1554)
Elizabeth Hussey was the daughter of John, Lord Hussey of Sleaford (1466-xJune 29,1537) and Anne Grey (1493-1543), although some accounts say she was the daughter of his first wife, Margaret Blount, and was born c.1506. She married Sir Walter Hungerford (1503-x.July 28,1540) in October 1532 and they had two children, Eleanor and Edward (c.1533-December 5, 1605), but the marriage was not a happy one. A letter from Lady Hungerford to Lord Cromwell complained that her husband had kept her prisoner in Farleigh Castle for three or four years and tried to poison her. She wanted a divorce. So, apparently, did Hungerford, but when he learned that obtaining one would not permit him to remarry, he dropped the suit. Part of the problem may have been that Elizabeth’s father, Lord Hussey, participated in the Pilgrimage of Grace and was attained for treason and executed in 1537. In 1536, Hungerford, who had Lutheran leanings, was created Baron Hungerford of Heytesbury. In 1540 he was arrested and charged with a number of treasonous offenses, including shielding a traitor (his chaplain), conjuring to determine how long the king would live and whether the Pilgrimage of Grace would succeed, and committing unnatural acts. He was accused of "the abominable and detestable vice and sin of buggery" and held in the Tower of London until he was executed by being beheaded. In October 1542, Elizabeth remarried, taking as her second husband Sir Robert Throckmorton of Coughton (c.1510-February 12, 1581). Their children were Anne (d.1605+), Elizabeth, Temperance, Muriel, Robert, George, and another son whose name has not survived and who probably died young.
Elizabeth Hussey was the daughter of Sir Robert Hussey of Linwood, Lincolnshire (d.1546) and his second wife, Jane Stydolf (d.1561). In 1553, she married Anthony Crane of Rochampton, Surrey (1510-August 16, 1583) and by him had a daughter, Mary (d.1606). Crane supported Puritan reforms in religion and Elizabeth seems to have been of like mind. He left her his thirty-one-year lease to East Molesey, Surrey. In 1588, she permitted Robert Waldegrave and his wife, whose printing press had been destroyed for printing an unauthorized book, to bring what they could salvage of the type to her house in Aldermanbury. Soon afterward, they set up a new press at Elizabeth’s country house at East Molesey, Surrey and there printed the first of the Martin Marprelate tracts. By October, they’d moved the press to Fawsley Priory in Northamptonshire, a house owned by George Carleton of Overstone, Northamptonshire (1529-January 1590). Carleton and Elizabeth married by early 1589 and continued to hide the printing press from the authorities. In October, Elizabeth was fined 1000 marks and imprisoned in the Fleet for refusing to take the ex officio oath and was still there when Carleton died. He had named her executor of his will but during her imprisonment "a great part" of his goods and household stuff at Overstone was stolen. On May 17, 1590, she appeared before the Star Chamber and was fined £500 for sheltering a secret press. It is not clear how much longer she remained in prison, nor is it certain when she died. Biography: Oxford DNB entry under “Crane, Elizabeth.”
Katherine Hussey was the youngest daughter and co-heir of Nicholas Hussey of Harting, Sussex (c.1417-January 15, 1470/1). In around 1475, at about the age of thirteen, she married Sir Reginald Bray (c.1440-August 5, 1503). Her dowry included estates in Berkshire, Sussex, and Hampshire. She was part of the household of Margaret Beaufort and she and her husband continued to keep rooms in Margaret's London house, Coldharbour, even after Katherine joined the household of Elizabeth of York. At some point after 1485, Bray bought Chelsea Manor in Middlesex. He was very wealthy and influential and, as he and Katherine had no children, he named the sons of his brother, John, as his heirs. This was contested and not finally settled until after Katherine's death. Katherine, who was friends with humanist John Colet, named Colet as the executor of her will, dated December 15, 1507. It was proved February 7, 1508.
see KATHERINE WEBBE
see MARGARET BLOUNT
MARY HUSSEY (d. 1545+)
Mary Hussey was the daughter, probably the youngest daughter, of John, Lord Hussey of Sleaford (1466-xJune 29,1537) and Anne Grey (1493-1543). Because of her father’s treason, she lost her social standing and whatever dowry might normally have been provided for her. At the end of May 1539, she went to Calais to become a waiting gentlewoman to Honor, viscountess Lisle, wife of the Lord Deputy. As a result, she was part of the household a year later when Lord and Lady Lisle were arrested and charged with treason. All the Lisle correspondence was seized. A number of letters survive concerning Mary’s coming to Calais, along with the depositions she gave concerning the destruction of certain love letters by Lady Lisle’s youngest daughter, Mary Bassett. Mary Hussey seems to have remained with Lady Lisle during her enforced stay in the house of a gentleman of Calais, one Francis Hall. Lady Lisle was freed and returned to England after Lord Lisle’s death in March 1542. Mary married Humphrey Dimock or Dymock and had children Francis, Henry, Thomas, Mary, and Catherine, but details and dates are sketchy. The House of Commons passed a Bill of Restitution for the heirs of Lord Hussey on March 4, 1563 that listed Mary Dymmocke among those restored in blood, but this does not necessarily mean that she was still alive in 1563.
see URSULA LOVELL
(c.1513-November 21, 1574)
Alice Hutchen (Huchen/Hutchin), called Anne in some older sources, was the daughter and coheir of Thomas Hutchen, mercer of London. Her first husband was Hugh Methwold, another mercer. They had nine children, including William and Anne. Her second husband was John Blundell of Hadleigh, Suffolk and St. Laurence Jewry (d. September 20, 1559). He was also a mercer and they also had nine children: Philip (d. before 1559), Elizabeth, Mary, Theodora, Anne, Susanna, and three other daughters who died before 1559. Blundell acquired property in Oxfordshire, including Steeple Barton, where the family settled and where he died. He left all his lands to his widow and his five surviving daughters. In 1570, Alice gave the Mercers' Company £100 to be used for loans to two young men. Her own son, William Methwold, was the first to receive one of the loans. In return for the £100 and another £10 to be used to pay for a dinner in her honor when she died, she was to be invited to all company dinners at which women were in attendance and was to be buried "as a sister of this fellowship." She made a will on September 29, 1570 confirming this and instructing that 13d. in bread be given every Sunday morning to the poor of St. Laurence Jewry. On October 22, 1570, just before his term of office ended, she married Sir Alexander Avenon/Davenant (d.1578+), Lord Mayor of London, an ironmonger. Alice was buried at St. Laurence Jewry. Biography: Anne F. Sutton, The Mercery of London, Appendix 2.
see ANNE MARBURY
see MARGARET BYRON
see BRIDGET MILL
DOROTHY HUTTOFT (d.1563)
Dorothy Huttoft was the daughter of Henry Huttoft of Southampton (d.c.1542), mayor of that city in 1525 and 1534, and his wife Joan (d.1542+). She married a Florentine merchant, Anthony Guidotti (1492-November 27, 1555). He arrived in England during the second decade of the sixteenth century and was granted letters of denizenship on February 8, 1533. A joint venture to increase exports from Southampton led Dorothy's father and husband into debt the following year, including debts to the Crown amounting to £753 and £587 in customs duties. In 1535, Anthony fled back to Italy, leaving behind Dorothy and their three sons, Giovanni (John), Pier Francesco, and Andrea. In 1537, Guidotti wrote to Lord Cromwell from Naples to propose that twenty-four silk weavers from Sicily be permitted to establish their industry in Southampton. In 1540, he returned to England and was imprisoned in the Fleet for debt. By one estimate, in 1542, when King Henry granted him protection from his creditors for one year, he owed £6657, of which Huttoft had guaranteed £2327. Apparently, he again left England, but in 1550 he was back and employed by King Edward as a messenger to France. He was knighted in April and given 1000 crowns reward and a pension of £250. In May he was buying property in Florence, where he already owned a house on the Via Larga. He returned to Florence in 1553 and was appointed commissioner of Volterra, where he died. In December 1557, Dorothy married John Harman, a gentleman usher in the household of Anne of Cleves. The inscription on the memorial plaque of Anthony Guidotti in Florence calls Dorothy Ann and gives her date of death as 1563. She was certainly deceased by March 1569 when the house they had lived in in Southampton, referred to in the records as "late called my lady Guidotte's," was badly in need of repairs.
Ursula Huttoft was the daughter of Henry Huttoft of Southampton, Hampshire (d. c.1542), mayor of that city in 1525 and 1534 and his wife Joan (d.1543+). By 1510, Ursula had married Edmund Cockerell of Guernsey (d. between September 1559 and October 1560). They moved to London, where Cockerell was admitted to the freedom of the city as a grocer on November 23, 1531. Four years later, the entire family's fortunes were ruined when Ursula's sister Dorothy's husband, a Florentine named Antonio Guidotti, fled abroad and left behind a mountain of debts. He returned to England in 1540 and was imprisoned in the Fleet, but the money was still owed to creditors. When Ursula's father died, John Mill (d.1557), father-in-law of her brother John (d.1542/3) and one of those to whom Guidotti owed money, seized Henry Huttoft's goods and books of account. He still held them as late as 1547 and there were still unsettled debts as late as 1561. As a widow, Ursula was allowed to remain in the house in London Wall which she and her husband had occupied, but only after the intervention of William Paulet, marquess of Winchester, who had to request permission for her to do so from the Lord Mayor of London. Ursula and her husband do not seem to have had any children. He did not leave a will.
Elizabeth Hutton was the daughter and coheiress of John Hutton or Hoton of Tudhoe, Durham (c.1455-August 22, 1485) and Margaret Chaurton. She married first, perhaps as early as 1500, Sir William Hansard of South Kelsey, Lincolnshire (c.1479-January 11, 1521/2, by whom she had Robert, William (1501-April 25, 1522), Thomas, Elizabeth, and Bridget (c.1508-December 20, 1552). By a marriage settlement dated May 2, 1522, she became the third wife of Sir William Askew or Ayscough of Stallingborough, Lincolnshire and Nuthall, Nottinghamshire (c.1479-August 6, 1540). Almost at once a dispute arose over the wardship of Elizabeth Hansard (d.1559), daughter of Elizabeth's son William, who had died a few months after his father. This went to Askew but was contested by the infant's maternal grandfather, Sir Robert Tyrwhitt. Later (c.1541/2) Elizabeth Hansard was married to Askew's eldest son and heir, Francis (d.1563). By Askew, Elizabeth had two more sons, Christopher (d.1543) and Thomas. In his will, Askew named his widow and his eldest son, Francis, as executors with the provision that if Elizabeth did not want to serve in this capacity she should have the £100 she had brought to the marriage and her room in the house at Stallingborough. In 1543, she had to petition Chancery over the failure of the escheator to hold an inquisition post mortem, despite having paid him four marks for this service. In that same year, she is probably the Lady Askew mentioned in the will of Elizabeth Barton, a London widow, written on September 30 and proved on October 10. Although Elizabeth Barton was the servant of the widow of a former Lord Mayor of London, Lady Askew owed her £10. This seems to suggest that Lady Askew was left in financial difficulty waiting for the estate of her husband to be settled. In 1546 there would have been further distress when her stepdaughter, Anne Askew, was executed for heresy. Elizabeth was buried in St. Martin's, Lincoln on May 12, 1550.
see ELIZABETH BELLINGHAM; ELIZABETH FARTHING
(c.1455-before 1511) (maiden name unknown)
Alice Hyde was the wife of a wealthy clothier named Hyde who lived in Newbury, Berkshire. Her parentage is unknown. One of her husband's apprentices was a man named John Smallwood or Smalewoode of Winchcombe, Gloucestershire (c.1465-February 15, 1519/20), who subsequently went by the name John Winchcombe and was popularly known as Jack of Newbury. After her first husband's death, Alice married him, although he was some ten years younger than she was. Details of their courtship, as fictionalized in 1597 in Thomas Deloney's Pleasant History of John Winchcomb, can be found at Berkshire History. The family fortune came from the manufacture and export of kerseys. At one time, 160 looms were set up in the house. Although only a small portion of this house still exists, it was built of brick and timber and once took up an entire block. Remains have been found to show the rooms were paneled with oak wainscotting. Although the History of Parliament says that John Winchcombe (1488/9-December 2, 1557), son of Jack of Newbury, was probably the child of his second wife, Joan, most other sources list Alice as his mother. The date of her death is unknown, but took place before Henry VIII was supposedly entertained by Jack during a visit to Newbury in either 1516 or 1518. One online genealogy (no sources given) gives Jack two children by his second wife, Robert (c.1512-June 28, 1539) and Margaret (c.1514-November 27, 1541), which would put Alice's death before 1511. Alice was buried in Our Lady Chancel in St. Nicholas, the parish church of Newbury. In his will, dated January 4, 1519/20, Jack asked to be buried beside her and provided for "a stone to be laid upon us both." A memorial brass still exists.
see ALICE ESSEX
Elizabeth Hyde was the fourth daughter of Oliver Hyde of Denchworth (1462-October 4, 1516) and Agnes Lovingcott (1467-May 5, 1523). She was the second wife of Sir Thomas Unton of Wadley in Faringdon, Berkshire (1475-August 4, 1533), by whom she had Alexander (c.1508-December 16, 1547), Thomas, Edith (d.1562), and Anne. Elizabeth made her will on April 21, 1536 and it was proved June 16, 1536. Portrait: alabaster effigy in Unton Chapel, Faringdon Church.
Katherine Hyde or Hide was the daughter of Sir John Hyde of Aldborough or Hyde, Dorset. She married Nicholas Mynne of Barsham, Norfolk and afterward was the second wife of Sir Nicholas Lestrange of Hunstanton Hall, Norfolk (1515-February 19, 1580). They were married in January 1547. She had no children by her second husband. After the 1572 execution of Lestrange's patron, the duke of Norfolk, he relocated to Ireland, selling Hunstanton Hall to his son by his first wife, Hamon (c.1533-1580). Katherine remained in England, living at King's Lynn. Portrait: by the monogramist H. W.
Lucy Hyde was the daughter of William Hyde or Hide of Throcking, Hertfordshire (c.1530-1580) and his wife Elizabeth. According to Joan Barbara Greenbaum Goldsmith's All the Queen's Women: The Changing Place and Perception of Aristocratic Women in Elizabethan England,1558-1620 (unpublished dissertation, 1987), Lucy was the daughter of the Elizabeth Hyde who was at court from 1575 and possibly until 1603. Elizabeth Hyde may therefore have been the Mrs. Hyde who was Mother of Maids from 1601-1603. Charlotte Merton identifies Lucy as a chamberer from 1593-1603 in her The Women who served Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth. On June 13, 1597, Lucy and her husband, Sir Robert Osborne, paid £100 for the grant of the lease of Godmanchester parsonage in Huntingdonshire for twenty-one years. In 1604, they had the lease confirmed by a bill in Parliament. It is unclear if Sir Robert was the same Sir Robert Osborne, a lawyer, who sold Kilmarsh Hall in Northamptonshire in 1617.
see THOMASIN BARDFIELD
see FRANCES ROGERS
Sage Hygons was the wife of Gryffydd Hygons of New Carmarthen (d. April 8, 1559). According to his entry in the History of Parliament, her father was named Lewis ap Thomas. Since the usage of Welsh surnames was inconsistent during this period and can be confusing, I have listed her here under her married name. In 1543, one Rhys Gwyn accused Hygons, his wife, and others of occupying land that belonged to him. An outcome of the case is not recorded. In 1546, Hygons and Sage took a twenty-one year lease on lands and houses at a rent of £22/year. They could afford it. Two years earlier, Hygons' lands had been valued at £50/year and his goods at £80. When Sage is next heard of, however, as beneficiary of the "lower mill" and other bequests in the will Gryffydd Hygons, made on March 29, 1559, she is identified not as Hygons' wife, but as "now wife to Mr. William Morris Gwyn." After Hygons' death, in the first inquisition post mortem, she was named as heir and in April 1559 "Sage Hygons alias Gwyn" and William Morris Gwyn were jointly granted administration of the estate. A second inquisition post mortem was later held in which Marion Hygons, an aunt of the deceased, was named his heir instead. As no further details are given, one can only speculate about Sage and her marital status.
Elizabeth Hynde was the daughter and heir of Augustine Hynde or Hide of Cripplegate (d. August 10, 1554), a clothworker and London alderman, and his second wife, Elizabeth Lee (d. July 12, 1569). She was an "orphan of the city" after her father died, even though her mother subsequently married Sir John Lyon (d.1564), a Bucklersbury grocer who was Lord Mayor of London in 1554-5. She had five older siblings, including a half brother, Roland Hynde (1542-1615) and a sister, Joan. On August 1, 1572, Elizabeth was lodged in the household of Francis Barnham, a draper, and his wife, Alice (see ALICE BRADBRIDGE). She came with the specific instruction that no suitors should be allowed to visit her. On August 28, this was amended to allow Randall Hurleston, her father's cousin german, to visit her, but they were strictly chaperoned. The restrictions were loosened a bit on September 9, but he was still forbidden to mention marriage to her. Apparently there were two claims of a precontract with Elizabeth, one by Samuel Knowles and another by one Appleby. A man named Crowley was also petitioning to pay court to Mistress Hynde. On October 7, Hurleston petitioned to remove Elizabeth from the Barnhams' custody but was denied. On November 25, Knowles was mentioned by name as someone who was not to be permitted to see Elizabeth. Finally, on November 27, Elizabeth went to the Guildhall to be examined by the Lord Mayor and the highest ranking aldermen, representing the Court of Orphans. On January 25, 1573, Knowles was given permission to visit Elizabeth, but was bound in the amount of £200 not to marry her within two years of that date. On January 28, however, he obtained a 'general license for marriage' with Elizabeth and on April 14, the couple informed the Court of Orphans that they were wed. Most of these details come from Lena Cowen Orlin's Locating Privacy in Tudor London.
see JANE VERNEY
see URSULA CURSON
text ©2008-14 Kathy Lynn Emerson (all rights reserved)