Kathy Lynn Emerson
to update and correct
her very out-of-date
Wives and Daughters: The Women of Sixteenth-Century England (1984)
NOTE: this document exists only in electronic format
and is ©2008-15 Kathy Lynn Emerson (all rights reserved)
ALICE IBBOT (x. April 5, 1593)
Alice Ibbot is better known as Alice Samuel, accused of being a witch in 1589 and hanged for using witchcraft to commit murder in 1593. Philip C. Almond, in The Witches of Warboys (2008), presents a convincing argument that Alice Samuel, alleged to be eighty years old in 1593, was really the much younger Alice Ibbot who married John Samuel in Upwood, a village near Warboys and about ten miles from Cambridge, on May 5, 1561. He suggests she was about twenty-five at the time, making her around fifty-seven when she was executed. In Tudor times, "an old body" was anyone fifty or older and "old age" was age fifty-six to death. For women it might begin earlier, with the "cessation of the flowers." Almond argues that Alice could not have been much older than fifty-seven because her daughter, Agnes Samuel, was described as "young and a maid" and therefore was unlikely to have been much older than twenty-five in 1593. Almond also cites examples in the records of John Samuel's violent nature. On one occasion, he beat Alice with a cudgel for revealing that he had lied to his neighbor, Robert Throckmorton. In November 1589, nine-year-old Jane Throckmorton, ailing daughter of Robert Throckmorton of Warboys, accused Alice, who was visiting the sick girl, of being a witch. Within two months, Jane's four sisters and seven of the family's female servants had begun to imitate Jane's symptoms, most likely in order to share the attention Jane was getting. They forced Alice to move in with the family as a servant. In 1590, Lady Cromwell (Susan Weeks) visited the Throckmortons and had an exchange of words with Alice during which Alice uttered the fatal sentence "I never did you any harm as yet." Soon after, Lady Cromwell fell ill. She died in July of 1592. At Christmas that year, when Alice, at last fed up, ordered the Thockmorton girls to stop their erratic behavior, they surprised her by obeying. The local vicar, Francis Dorrington, who was also the girls' uncle, convinced Alice that she should confess to witchcraft. She did so, but retracted her confession the next day. The retraction did her no good. She was taken before the William Wickham, Bishop of Lincoln where, once again, she was coerced into confessing. This time she admitted to having three familiars—chickens named Pluck, Catch, and White. While she was in prison in February 1593, some seven months after Lady Cromwell's death, Joan Throckmorton accused Alice's daughter Agnes of murdering Lady Cromwell with witchcraft. Alice was accused of the same crime in late March. For witchcraft, she’d have been sentenced to a year in prison. This new charge carried the death penalty. The Throckmorton children also accused her husband. All three were tried at Huntingdon on April 4, 1593, found guilty, and hanged the next day. Their property was confiscated by Lady Cromwell's husband, Sir Henry, who used the proceeds to pay for an annual sermon against witchcraft to be preached in Huntingdon in perpetuity. A pamphlet (The Most Strange and Admirable Discovery of the Three Witches of Warboys), published later than same year, memorialized the trial and added an account of the discovery of a witch's teat on Alice's body while it was being prepared for burial.
ELEANOR IDEN (x. July 16,
Eleanor Iden of Battle, Sussex was identified as a "spinster" but whether this was her marital status or her profession or both is unclear. The Battle liberty coroner, John Downton, held an inquest into the death of Thomas Iden on April 2, 1592 and determined that Eleanor had given him milk mixed with arsenic to drink on March 28 with the intention of poisoning him. He died on March 30. Edmund Pelham, J.P. sent her to gaol and she was tried at the next assizes. She pled not guilty but was convicted. She then claimed she was pregnant and this was verified by a jury of matrons. She remained in gaol until the next assizes, on February 26, 1593, when she was judged to be not pregnant. The fact that she was hanged suggests that Thomas was not her husband. The charge when a wife murdered her husband or a servant killed his or her master was petty treason rather than murder and the punishment for that was to be burnt at the stake.
AGNES IFIELD (d. 1562+)
Agnes Ifield was the daughter and heir of John Ifield and the stepdaughter of Sir Robert Brandling. Her first husband was Matthew Baxter of Newcastle, by whom she had a son, John. After March 1545, when his third wife died, Agnes became the fourth wife of Sir Thomas Hilton of Hilton, Durham (d. March 1559), who served as sheriff of Northumberland in 1549/50 and was the patron of Dr. William Bullein, a physician who dedicated his Government of Health to Hilton in 1558. Bullein left for London shortly before Hilton died of a fever. In his will, made on November 8, 1558 and proved January 17, 1561, he named Agnes as executrix and left her, among other bequests, a life interest in half of his goods, the lease of Tynemouth, but his principal heir was his brother William. The sequence of events is a bit unclear but two things happened soon after that. Bullein married Agnes and William Hilton accused Bullein of murdering his brother. The case went before the duke of Norfolk and was dismissed. In June 1560, Bullein and Agnes were living in a house in Grub Street in the parish of St. Giles Cripplegate, where Bullein's brother, Richard, was rector. William Hilton, however, was determined to cause trouble. He brought suit at the assizes for debt, claiming that Bullein had owed Thomas 350 marks. He won this case. Bullein sought to overturn the decision in chancery but in the interim, both he and Agnes were imprisoned for debt. They were not released until sometime in 1562 and Agnes died soon after.
see JANE VERDON
see MARY SEYMOUR
see ELEANOR CONSTABLE
KATHERINE INGLEBY (d.1600+)
Katherine Ingleby was the daughter of William Ingleby of Ripley (1494-July 12, 1528) and Cecily Talboys. She married Sir William Ardington and had two children, Cyril and Jane (sometimes called Anne) (1556-1606). At some point before Michaelmas 1586, Dame Isabel Whitehead, formerly a nun at Arthington Priory, Yorkshire came to live with Katherine, who by then was probably a widow. At Michaelmas, Ardington Hall was searched for Catholics. Katherine and her daughter, the wife of Sir Ralph Grey, were taken into custody. The searchers badgered Dame Isabel, who lay sick in her bed, threatening her with swords and saying that they would kill her if she did not tell them were David Ingleby (Katherine's brother) and a Mr. Winsour were. Winsour was Edward Windsor, son of the 3rd Lord Windsor, who was David Ingleby's co-conspirator in the Babington Plot. The searchers finally arrested Dame Isabel and took her off to prison in York Castle to join Katherine and her daughter. Isabel died there the following March. It isn’t clear how long Katherine spent in prison, but part that time was in the company of a distant kinwoman, Ursula Wright (née Rudson). Ursula spent a total of fourteen years imprisoned for her religious beliefs, dying in 1594. Katherine was out of prison by 1597, when she had as her houseguest Ursula’s granddaughter, Mary Ward (January 23, 1585-January 20, 1645). Mary probably remained with Katherine at Harwell Hall until she moved on to another Catholic household in 1600.
ESTHER INGLIS or LANGLOIS (1571-August 30, 1624)
Esther Inglis was the daughter of Nicolas Langlois (d.1611) and Marie Prisott or Presot. Her parents were Huguenot refugees who came from Dieppe, France to London. The DNB gives the date of their arrival as 1569, so that Esther would have been born in England. Other sources say 1572 and give her birthplace as Dieppe. The family had moved to Edinburgh, Scotland by 1574. Esther's mother was a calligrapher, a not uncommon profession for women in Europe, and she taught her daughter the trade. In 1596, Esther married Bartholomew Kello (d. March 15, 1638), a minor government official. They moved to London by 1604 and lived in Essex from 1607-1614, where Kello was rector of Willingale Spain. Esther was patronized by both Elizabeth I and James I and many of the manuscripts she illuminated still survive. She had four children, including Samuel (d.1680) and daughters Elizabeth and Mary. They returned to Edinburgh in 1615. Biography: Oxford DNB entry under "Inglis [married name Kello], Esther." NOTE: the DNB gives Kello's date of death as 1631; Tricia Bracher, "Esther Inglis and the English Succession Crisis of 1599" in Women and Politics in Early Modern England, 1540-1700, edited by James Daybell. Portraits: The portrait done in 1595 was the basis for a self-portrait which appears sixteen times in her extant manuscripts.
IPPOLYTA THE TARTARIAN (d. 1569+)
Most writers who mention Ippolyta speculate that she was a child, a dwarf, or one of Queen Elizabeth’s fools. The queen stood as godmother at her christening in 1561 and gave her a “baby of pewter” as a gift in 1562. However, in 1564 Ippolyta is referred to as “our dear and well beloved woman.” The explanation? In the spring of 1559, Anthony Jenkinson of the Muscovy Company returned to Moscow from a trip to Bokhara bringing with him a Tartar girl he would later present to Queen Elizabeth. I believe Ippolyta was that girl. She’d have been christened because she’d just converted to Christianity, not because she was a small child. As for the pewter baby, many grown women collected dolls, including Queen Jane Seymour. Giving royalty a person as a gift was not unheard of. Aside from the case of Mary Radcliffe, there is that of three savages from the New World presented to Queen Elizabeth’s grandfather, Henry VII, by men of Bristol. They were kept at court and dressed in English clothing for quite a number of years. In Ippolyta’s case, there are numerous records of livery, shoes, and other clothing paid for by the queen. In 1564, even excluding the most expensive items—two gowns and a kirtle—these expenses totaled more than £15 for the year. The last record for Ippolyta is in 1569 when a skinner was paid for five dozen black coney skins to fur her short damask cloak. In one reference she is recorded as "Ipolita the Tartarian, alias Lynnet."
see ANNE HILL
see ELIZABETH BARKER
ELIZABETH ISLEY (1510-1592+)
Elizabeth Isley was the daughter of Sir Thomas Isley of Sundridge, Kent (1485-1518) and Elizabeth Guildford (before 1489-1532+). Her first husband was Richard Hill of Hartley Wintney, Hampshire (c.1500-1539), wine merchant and master of Henry VIII's wine cellar, by whom she is said to have had ten or eleven children. Among them were Mary (1532-November 30, 1616), Margaret, Frances (wife of Robert Byng), Anne (wife of John Bellingham and Thomas Lewknor), and Richard. "Mrs. Hillis" is listed as one of Anne Boleyn's ladies in January 1534 and it is tempting to think that this may have been Elizabeth Isley. On June 4, 1538, Henry VIII granted lands to Richard Hill and Elizabeth, his wife, and on February 6 and November 29, 1540, to Elizabeth Hill, widow. Elizabeth's second husband, married c.1540, was Sir John Mason of Abingdon, Berkshire (1502/3-April 21, 1566), who served in a number of civic posts, including ambassador to the court at Brussels under Mary Tudor. Elizabeth was with him when he served in France. They had one son, Thomas (before 1558-before 1566). In 1557, Philip and Mary granted the reversion of Sutton Courtenay, Berkshire to Sir John Mason and Elizabeth his wife in exchange for the manor of Timsbury in Hampshire. In 1558, they resigned the grant in favor of their son Thomas. At his death, Mason held the post of Treasurer of the Chamber. Queen Elizabeth appointed his widow to fill out his term. Elizabeth erected a monument to Mason in St. Paul's. The queen granted the lease of the demesnes and mills at Sutton Courtenay to Dame Elizabeth Mason for twenty-one years from 1574. Her son-in-law, Robert Byng, served as her steward on the estate. According to a footnote in The Victoria County History, History of the County of Berkshire, Vol. 4 (1924) as reprinted in British History Online, Elizabeth was still alive in 1591/2. After her death the manor reverted to the Crown. Elizabeth is said to have died in Croft, Leicestershire but the exact date is unknown.
ANNE IVE (d.1503+)
Anne Ive was the daughter of John Ive of Boynton Hall, Great Finborough, Suffolk and his wife Alice. Her first husband was Nicholas Timperley of Buxhall (d. May 20, 1489), by whom she had four sons, Nicholas, Thomas, John, and William (c.1480-April 1, 1528). She inherited considerable land in Suffolk to pass on to them. Her second husband was Richard Gowle of Stowmarket (c.1440-c.1503), a wealthy merchant. She was his second wife. They married in about 1490, when he retired to Suffolk, and had one son, John, and five daughters. He left her lands in Great Finborough for life and named her executor.
ROSE IVE (1557-November 13,1632)
Rose Ive was the daughter of Richard Ive of Kentish Town, St. Dunstan's Parish, Middlesex (c.1535-February 8, 1558/9) and Elizabeth Agmondesham (d.1592), daughter of Henry Agmondesham of West Horsley. Widowed, Rose's mother married William Hammond of Guildford (d. April 10, 1575). Hammond made his will on March 4, 1575, leaving the bulk of his estate to his wife for life and the remainder to his stepdaughter, Rose. This included land in East Horsley, Surrey, Rayleigh, Essex, and Billingshurst, Sussex, together estimated to be worth between £4000 and £5000. On April 23, 1575, Rose married Laurence Stoughton of Stoughton, Surrey (November 12, 1554-December 13, 1615). On the death of her mother, Rose also inherited the house Hammond had lived in, called Leaden Porch, in Guildford. In the 1590s, Stoughton sold East Horsley, Effingham rectory, and the lands Rose had inherited in Essex and bought Stoke-next-Guildford manor. He also enlarged Stoughton, and King James visited there in 1611. Rose and Stoughton had eleven sons and six daughters, including Laurence, Thomas, George (1581-1624), Henry, John, Richard, Nicholas, Adrian, Anthony (April 7, 1598-January 14, 1643/4), Israel (1603-1644), Elizabeth, Anne, Mary, Katherine, Sarah, and Rose.
(August 24, 1474-c.1549)
Elizabeth Iwardby was the daughter of John Iwardby of Quainton Mallet (October 12, 1449-August 22, 1485) and Joan Brudenhall (1455-1522). Her first husband was William Elmes of Woolfox, Rutland (1465-1503), by whom she had children, including John (1495-February 1545). Her second husband, to whom she was married c.1504 as his second wife, was Thomas Pigott of Whaddon, Buckinghamshire (c.1460-1520), reader at the Inner Temple. He purchased Doddershall Manor in Quainton, Buckinghamshire on November 25, 1504 as a wedding present for Elizabeth. He’d had five children by his first wife and with Elizabeth had six more: Thomas, Robert, Roger, Francis, Margery (1509-1587), Elizabeth, and Joan. Pigott was a justice of assize by the time of his death. His will is dated February 26, 1519/20 and it was proved in November 1520. On December 10, 1539, Elizabeth was licensed to alienate the tenement called Colwyks and certain lands in Waddesden, Quainton, and Colwycks, Buckinghamshire which had belonged to the former priory of Woborne, Bedforshire. On July 8, 1540, she was granted the lease of the site and demesnes of the manor of Whaddon together with the herbage of the queen’s park there on surrender of a formal lease granted to her with William Pigott (her stepson) in 1537 by the late queen, Jane Seymour. She was granted an annuity of £37 19s. in consideration of the manor of Whaddon, sold to the king. Her will is dated November 20, 1548 and was proved November 6, 1549.
ELIZABETH JACKMAN (d.1550+)
Elizabeth Jackman was the daughter of William Jackman of Wing, Buckinghamshire. Her first husband was John Knight of Newbury, Berkshire (d. January 13, 1550), by whom she had two sons, Richard and John. His will, made July 2, 1549 and proved May 18, 1550, left her dower property in or near Newbury, including three fulling mills, and also, until Richard came of age, the profits of lands in Enborne and a brewhouse in Newbury. She was granted Richard's wardship. Her second husband was named Robert Paris. The entry for John Knight in the History of Parliament speculates that he was the Robert Paris of New Romney, who died in October 1550, four days after he was attacked and wounded by John Cheyne and others. If so, Elizabeth was widowed twice in the same year.
see ELIZABETH PICKERING
see MARGARET GIGS; SYBIL HAMPDEN; JANE THE FOOL
see ELIZABETH BARNEFELDE
JANE THE FOOL (d.1558+)
Jane the Fool was as much a fixture at the Tudor court as Henry VIII’s fool, Will Somers. John Southworth, in Fools and Jesters at the English Court offers evidence that she was there as early as 1537 and may have been there earlier, as the female fool in Queen Anne Boleyn’s household. She was the type of fool known as an “innocent”—probably mentally retarded and possibly suffering from physical disabilities. She had a “keeper” assigned to her. According to records cited in Carolly Erickson's Bloody Mary, Jane wore beautiful gowns but the hose and shoes of a clown and she had her head shaved regularly at fourpence per barbering. In December 1537 she was in Princess Mary’s household. She was ill in the autumn of 1543 and cost Mary 22s 6d. and another 5s for six ells of cloth to make a pair of sheets for her. It is possible that soon after that she became part of the household of Queen Kathryn Parr, but she was with Mary Tudor after Mary became queen in 1553. Jane the Fool survived into the reign of Elizabeth but then disappears from the records. Biographies: see the chapter on Jane in Southworth’s book. Portraits: Again, following Southworth, Jane is probably the figure on one side of the portrait of Henry VIII and his family at Hampton Court. This makes sense, since the figure on the opposite side is Will Somers. Others argue that the woman is “Mother Jak,” Prince Edward’s nurse, but Mother Jak herself is the object a good deal of confusion. The Holbein sketch labeled “Mother Jak” is actually Margaret Gigs, Sir Thomas More’s foster daughter. Nineteenth-century historian Agnes Stickland suggested that Jak was short for Jackson, but offered no proof. Another unsubstantiated story I’ve seen online is that “Mother Jak” haunts Hampton Court. In reality, the most likely “Mother Jak” was an anonymous wet nurse hired to take care of Prince Edward. She was replaced, when her services were no longer needed to feed the infant prince, by Sybil Hampden, Mrs. Penne, the gentlewoman who was Edward’s chief nurse (a “dry” nurse) from October 1538 to 1544.
Catherine Jaqueman was the daughter of Louis Jaqueman of Orléans, France. Her mother was the heir to the Genteron or Gouteron family of Inguirand Turvyle, near Orléans. Catherine married an exiled English clergyman, William Whittingham (1524-June 10, 1579) in Geneva on November 15, 1556. Whittingham succeeded John Knox to the pulpit there and was one of those involved in producing the Geneva Bible. In order to complete that work, he did not return to England until May 1560. There is little mention of Catherine in England during her husband's lifetime and it is not known if she accompanied him on several trips to France, where she had been born. He was chaplain to Ambrose Dudley, earl of Warwick, and in 1563 was appointed Dean of Durham. En route to his new post, he preached before Queen Elizabeth at Windsor Castle. He and Catherine had eight children—Zachery (b. 1557) and Susanna (b.1558), who died young, and Timothy (d.1631+), Sarah, Deborah, Judith (1570-1590+), Elizabeth, and Daniel (1571-1590+). They were in Durham during the Rebellion of the Northern Earls in 1569, during which Durham Cathedral was taken over by the rebels. After her husband's death, Catherine remained in Durham. She inherited her third of his property and the guardianship of her younger children, plus £400 toward their upbringing. Within days, she had asked for the guardianship of her eldest son, Timothy, who had become a ward of the queen, and for all debts due to her husband at the time of his death. Both requests were granted. On October 22, 1579, the new dean requested that Catherine be called to account for the profits of the deanery due to him and asked that she show what leases she held for the house he wished to claim. In 1583, she was the defendant in a slander case in Durham. She had repeated the rumor that her neighbor, Margaret Key, wife of the master of the grammar school, Francis Key, had given birth to a child before her marriage. The outcome of the suit have not survived. Catherine wrote her will on December 9, 1590. She left her mansion and dwelling-house in the North Bailey and the lands in France that she had inherited from her father, to her son Timothy, and her houses in Kingsgate, near the Bow Church in Durham, to her son Daniel. After making specific bequests of furniture, plate, and books, including a French Bible, the rest of her estate was to be divided between her unmarried daughter Judith and the children of the daughter who married a man named Birkhead.
see ELIZABETH MILLS
JOYCE JEFFRIES (c.1570-1650)
Joyce Jeffries was the only child of Henry Jeffries of Ham or Home Castle, Worcestershire (d.c.1608) and Anne Barnaby (d.1617). She achieved distinction by being single and operating successfully as a moneylender, primarily in Hereford. Her financial records are extant from 1638-1650. Biography: Oxford DNB entry under "Jeffries,Joyce."
see ELIZABETH BIRCH
see AGNES WALTER
ELIZABETH JENKS OR GYNKES (1510-December 16, 1558)
Elizabeth Jenks was the daughter of William Jenks (1484-1571), a wealthy London spice merchant, and Elizabeth Adams. In 1535, she married Richard Rich (1496-June 12,1567), an ambitious young lawyer who later became baron Rich. She bore him five sons and ten daughters, including Robert, 2nd baron Rich (1537-February 27,1581), Sir Hugh (d.1554), Elizabeth, Winifred (d.1578), Ethelreda or Audrey, Frances, Mary, Dorothy, Agnes, (probably) Nicholas (1550-1600), Edward, and Richard. Portraits: a sketch by Holbein at Windsor; portrait after Holbein in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
see BRIDGET CRANE
JULIANA JENNINGS (d.1595)
Juliana Jennings was the daughter and heir of Nicholas Jennings of All Hallows, Barking, London and Preston, Lancashire (d.1532) and Margaret Mundy (d.1564/5). Her father was a London alderman. Her parents married in 1526. Widowed, her mother married Lord Edmund Howard (d.1539), thus briefly making Juliana and Catherine Howard, the future queen, stepsisters. Juliana married Sir Thomas Holcroft of Vale Royal, Cheshire (1505/6-July 31, 1558) and was the mother of Isabel (1555-January 16,1606) and Thomas (1557-1620). Her husband left Juliana all his movable property and leases, leaving very little income for their son during her lifetime. In 1590, mother and son quarreled over land in Streatham, Surrey. The queen had to intervene to settle the dispute. Juliana's daughter, who served as a maid of honor to the queen, married Edward Manners, 3rd earl of Rutland (1544-1587) in 1573.
see MARGARET MUNDY
ELIZABETH JENOUR or JENOURE (d. September 8, 1571)
Elizabeth Jenour was the daughter of John Jenour of Great Dunmow, Essex and Stoneham Aspall, Suffolk (c.1466-September 17, 1542), a prothonotary of the common pleas, and Alice Fincham (d.1547). She married Thomas Bokenham or Buckenham of Great Livermore and Snetterton, Norfolk (1510-December 9, 1535) and had by him two children, John (August 29, 1534-August 1, 1551) and Dorothy (d. June 7, 1560). Elizabeth’s second husband was Richard Codington of Cuddington, Surrey (d. May 27, 1567), by whom she had no children. In 1538, when Henry VIII decided to build his great palace of Nonsuch on the site, the Codingtons were forced to give up the manor of Cuddington. In exchange, they received Ixworth in Suffolk, formerly the property of a dissolved priory. Elizabeth left a long and detailed will, written on June 10, 1571 with an addenda made on September 5th. She made numerous bequests, including a remarkable number to women and girls. Two friends are singled out, Elizabeth Cornwallis, Lady Kytson of Hengrave, to whom she left "one hundred hops of my own growing," and Katherine Markham, who was to receive £10. She mentioned three goddaughters, Elizabeth Button who was to receive £10 on her marriage, Elizabeth Johnson, daughter of Thomas, a former servant (£5 on her marriage), and Elizabeth Bennett, to whom she left £5, also on her marriage. She left the same amount to Elizabeth’s sisters, Anne and Mary, when they wed. They were the daughters of Richard Bennett, another former servant. Other bequests to be paid on the recipients’ marriages were left to Agnes Stegell, a former servant (£5), and Katherine Forham (£5). Margaret Gaward, chambermaid, was to receive £10 when she turned eighteen. Dorothy Freville, Elizabeth’s niece, was to receive £50 at eighteen while another niece, Dorothy Argent (née Jenour), was left £20. Two other female servants, Elizabeth Noble and Elizabeth Throw, received 40s. and 20s. respectively. Her servants William Bradwell and his wife Anne received £5 each. A number of male servants were also remembered in the will, along with Elizabeth’s grandson (her principal heir), her brother, Robert, and several nephews. Elizabeth was buried at Ixworth with her second husband. Portrait: brass at Ixworth.
(d.1546+) (maiden name unknown)
Catherine was married successively to two men who were artificers at the court of Henry VIII. Her first husband was Thomas Jenyn of London (d. August 1518), the king's sergeant skinner. Her second husband was Thomas Addington of London (d. December 1543), who was the king's leather dresser from 1533. On May 25, 1524, Catherine Addington was granted "the room of silk woman to the king," indicating that she practiced this trade as the wife of a merchant, but she also seems to have been involved with her husbands in the trade of skinner. In Trinity term 1528, she and her second husband sued Robert Belden for a debt owed to her first husband. From Midsummer 1539, Catherine Addington was retained at court on quarterly wages. In April 1544, as a widow, she and her son, another Thomas Addington (d.1554), purchased the freehold of Harlowbury, Essex from the Crown for £1,549 14s. This purchase included the manor of Harlow, the rectory, and other property and 500 acres of land. Catherine succeeded her second husband as the king's skinner and was officially granted the office in February 1546. She received wages of twelve pence a day
see CATHERINE KILLIGREW
see DOROTHY BADBY
see ANNE SAPCOTE
ANNE JERNINGHAM or JERNEGAN (d.1559)
Anne Jerningham was the daughter of Sir Edmund Jerningham of Somerleyton, Suffolk (d. January 6, 1515) and Margaret Bedingfield (c.1476-March 24,1504). She was at court before May of 1511, when she received a half-year's wages (100s). She was listed as a chamberer on October 9, 1514, when King Henry VIII's sister, Mary Tudor, married King Louis XII of France. She was one of the few English attendants allowed to remain in France after the wedding. Sir Edward Grey (d. before 1517), eldest son of Thomas Grey, 1st marquis of Dorset, was also allowed to remain and they were married soon after, probably in France. As Lady Anne Grey, Anne remained in Mary Tudor's service, accompanying her back to England after she (Mary) wed the duke of Suffolk. It is at this point that confusion begins. In spite of W. H. Challen's "Lady Anne Grey" in the January 1963 Notes and Queries, in which he not only sorts out Anne Jerningham's marriages but also those of Anne Barlee (d.1558), a concurrent "Lady Anne Grey," subsequent publications, including the otherwise excellent account of the Field of Cloth of Gold in 1520 by Joycelyne G. Russell (1969) and Walter C. Richardson's superb biography of Mary Tudor (1970), misidentify Anne Jerningham, most commonly calling her the eighth daughter of the 1st marquis of Dorset. As far as I have been able to determine, the 1st marquis of Dorset never had a daughter named Anne. It was Anne Jerningham, now Lady Anne Grey because of her marriage, who was in Mary Tudor's service in 1516 and carried the infant Henry Brandon at his christening. Widowed by the spring of 1517, Anne was in Norfolk, in the household of the duke and duchess of Suffolk, when Queen Catherine of Aragon paid a visit. With her, I assume, came Mary Scrope Jerningham, Anne's stepmother, who was one of the queen's ladies. Richardson confuses matters even further by identifying the person who "contrived" an engagement for Lady Anne Grey as Anne Jerningham and calling her another of Mary Tudor's ladies. He does not seem to realize that Anne Jerningham and Anne Grey were the same person. He bases his conclusions on the duke of Suffolk's letter to Cardinal Wolsey, written on March 17, 1517 with the intention of making sure no blame fell upon him over the secret betrothal of one of his wife's ladies to a ward of the king for whom Suffolk was responsible. It says, in part, that "Mrs. Jerningham" (Mrs. was the abbreviation for Mistress and so could mean either a single or a married woman) "took her daughter-in-law (ie. step-daughter) aside and privately insured young Berkely unto the Lady Anne Greye one of the Queen, my wife's ladies." Since no given names are included, several online genealogies that wrongly assume Lady Anne Grey is the youngest daughter of the marquis of Dorset, also misidentify "young Berkely" as Thomas Berkeley (1505-1534), grandson of the Baron Berkeley of 1517. Both his age and the fact that his father and grandfather were still living argue against this. Richardson says he is John Berkeley, son and heir of Sir Maurice Berkeley or Barkley of Yate, Gloucestershire, and one of the king's wards. This is also incorrect, on two counts. John was not Sir Maurice's son. In 1515, Sir Maurice bought the wardship and marriage of John Berkeley, son and heir of Richard Berkeley of Stoke Gifford, Gloucestershire. Futhermore, he would have been too young in 1517 to figure in the marriage plans of Lady Jerningham. The article in Notes and Queries speculates on other possibilities to have been "young Berkely" but comes to no definite conclusions as to his identity except that he was probably a distant connection of the family at Yate. In any case, he was apparently one of the king's wards and the duke of Suffolk did not want to be accused of trying to marry him off without the king's permission. He suggested in his letter to Wolsey that an example should be made of Mrs. Jerningham, but apparently, since the secret engagement had not progressed very far, she was not punished for her transgression. Challen does note, however, that Anne Jerningham's will mentions "my son Sir John Barkley" and "my son William Barkley, Esquire." However, all the other sons and daughters listed are actually stepchildren (although the History of Parliament assigns Henry Barlee's one son and three daughters to Anne, his third wife). This suggests that Anne continued to have some sort of relationship with the youth she was briefly engaged to, but not that they actually married and had children. In fact, most sources indicated that Anne had no children with any of her husbands, and she did have three more of them. Her second husband was Henry Barlee of Albury, Hertfordshire (1487-November 12, 1529). It is not clear when she married him, but even if she had wed by 1520, she'd still have been listed as Lady Anne Grey at the Field of Cloth of Gold. She is listed in the King's Book of Payments in April 1520, receiving her half year's annuity of £6 13s. 4d. and again in September 1520 for the same. She was one of Barlee's executors in 1529. At some point before 1531, she married Sir Robert Drury of Hawstead, Suffolk (d. March 1,1535/6), whose properties included a house in Bury St. Edmunds and one in the parish of St. Clement Danes, London, which later gave Drury Lane its name. Her fourth husband, to whom she was wed by 1543, was Sir Edmund Walsingham of Chislehurst, Kent (d. February 10, 1549/50), who was Lord Lieutenant of the Tower from 1521-1543. He left her the bulk of his household goods at Yaxe in Kent for her lifetime, together with the lease on her house in the Blackfriars and all personal property she had brought to their marriage. As Lady Anne Grey, she was living in Blackfriars in the 1550s. Anne was buried on April 6, 1559 beside her first husband in the church of St. Clement Danes, London. She left a will dated March 1, 1559 and proved May 8, 1559. A transcript can be found at www.oxford-shakespeare.com.
ANNE JERNINGHAM or JERNEGAN (June 28,1516-before May 28,1581)
Anne Jerningham was the daughter of Sir John Jerningham of Somerleyton, Suffolk (c.1497-1558) and Bridget Drury. She married Sir Thomas Cornwallis (c.1519-December 24,1604), who was arrested briefly for recusancy in 1570 and was a gentlewoman of the privy chamber to Queen Mary in 1555. Her children were Elizabeth (1547-1628), Alice, Mary (d.c.1627), Sir William, and Sir Charles Cornwallis.
see CATHERINE BROOKE
ELIZABETH JERNINGHAM (d.1519)
Elizabeth Jerningham was the daughter of John Jerningham of Somerleyton, Suffolk, Suffolk (d.1474) and Agnes Darrell. She married John Denton or Dentonys, about whom nothing is known, before October 31, 1473, the date of her father's will, in which he names her the default heir to his manor of Little Worlingham. She is to inherit a life interest in this property after the death of her brother Osberne. Upon her death, the manor was to go to her son, Walter Denton, but he appears to have predeceased her. In 1496, she entered the household of Henry VII's children as mistress of the nursery to Prince Henry. She went on to become Princess Mary's governess and is probably the Mistress Denton who accompanied Princess Margaret to Scotland as well as the wardrobe keeper and lady-in-waiting to Elizabeth of York. She was paid £20 on June 23, 1503 "for the queen’s debts." Giles Tremlett (Catherine of Aragon) identifies her as Lady Governess to Catherine of Aragon's first, short-lived child in 1511 and David Loades identifies Elizabeth Denton as the first Lady Mistress of the nursery to Henry VIII's daughter, another Princess Mary, in 1516. In May 1515 she was granted a annuity of £50 per annum "for service to the late king and queen." By November 1517, Margaret Bryan was in charge of Mary Tudor's nursery. In 1518, Elizabeth Denton erected a tomb to herself in Blackfriars. She lived in some comfort in the Blackfriars Precinct until her death. She had a messuage, tenement and garden with a way to the waterside between the garden of Lady Peacock on the west and the garden of Richard Tryce on the east, and also two chambers and a cellar under the under-library adjacent to the hill garden. Philippa Jones's The Other Tudors: Henry VIII's Mistresses and Bastards makes the extraordinary claim that Elizabeth Denton was King Henry's first lover and even suggests that his grandmother, Margaret Beaufort, selected her for him. I find this highly unlikely, and note that Ms. Jones, although she did come up with several references to Elizabeth Denton that I had not seen, neglects to identify her other than as a royal servant. She relies on the fact that two grants were made to Elizabeth Denton shortly after Henry took the throne as proof of her claim. A £50 annuity (the same one Loades dates in 1515?) and the keepership of Cold Harbour, Margaret Beaufort's London house, were generous gifts, but not at all out of line as rewards for long service to the Tudors. Jones herself gives Elizabeth Denton's wages as £20 per annum as one of Elizabeth of York's ladies (the year is not clearly stated). She also implies, by the placement of his name in the same paragraph, that Elizabeth was married to William Denton, the queen's carver. She states that Elizabeth Denton replaced Elizabeth Darcy, Lady Mistress of the Royal Nursery, and that Elizabeth Darcy had retired or died by 1497. I assume that to mean Elizabeth Denton took over in 1497, but again the way the information is given prevents me from being certain. Jones does clearly state that Elizabeth Denton was governess to Henry VII's daughter, Mary Tudor, by 1500 and went to Scotland with Princess Margaret in 1503, returning when King James reduced the number of English attendants Margaret was allowed to keep with her. Then, remarkably, Jones quotes from a novel and wonders whether the author actually saw a portrait of Elizabeth Denton. Excuse me? Trust me on this one. Novels are fiction. Novelists MAKE THINGS UP! Especially the physical appearance of minor characters. Elizabeth Denton left a will dated April 26, 1518. Among other legacies, she left thirty shillings to the prior and chapter of Blackfriars.
ELIZABETH JERNINGHAM (before 1515-1558+)
Elizabeth Jerningham was the daughter of Sir Edward Jerningham or Jernegan of Somerleyton, Suffolk (d.1515) and his second wife, Mary Scrope (d. August 15,1548). She was a waiting gentlewoman to Anne Stanhope, Lady Beauchamp until January, 1537, when she became a maid of honor to Anne’s sister-in-law, Queen Jane Seymour. Later she was a maid of honor to Queen Mary. She was following family tradition. Her mother, first as Lady Jerningham and then as Lady Kingston, had been in the queen’s household since the beginning of Henry the Eighth’s reign.
see FRANCES BAYNHAM
see MARY SCROPE
see JANE DYLLYCOTES
see ELIZABETH PLANTAGENET
see MARY WITHAM
ANNE JOCELYN or JOSSELYN
see ANNE LUCAS
see ELIZABETH BARLEY; ELIZABETH BROOKE
JOAN JOCKEY (d. 1585+)
Joan Jockey’s parentage is unknown. Her notoriety comes from her position as the bigamous wife of John de Vere, 16th earl of Oxford (1512-August 3,1562). Oxford was still married to, but separated from his first wife, Dorothy Neville when, at the end of May 1545, he went through a marriage with Joan at Whit Colne Church. Dorothy Neville, who died in about January 1548, had separated from her husband some time before May 1545, refusing to live “amongst such a bad companye as were about the Earle of Oxforde,” but divorce at this time in England was difficult and even divorced couples were not legally permitted to remarry. Sometime during the period from 1545-8, Oxford also had a mistress named Anne. Her surname has not survived, but she was the servant of Mr. Cratherode, the tenant at Tilbury Hall, and later married a man named Phillips. According to later depositions, “all theise women were shaken of by the same Earle of Oxforde by the aduise and workings of his Counsell before the said lady Dorothie dyed.” Joan Jockey’s dismissal, however, was singularly brutal. Five men, two of them Oxford’s brothers-in-law and another his trusted servant, John Smith, broke down the door of her house in Earls Colne, Essex, pinned her to the floor, and disfigured her with a knife. Her nose was either cut off or sliced at the base of the nostrils to make her appearance grotesque. Cutting off a woman’s nose was apparently a traditional punishment for a whore. Oxford was involved with another charge of bigamy, as well (see the entry under Margery Golding) but as far as is known he was never held accountable on any charges during his lifetime. Depositions taken in 1585 indicate that Joan Jockey was still alive but no one knew where she was living.
ELIZABETH JOHNSON (c.1555-1575+)
Elizabeth Johnson was the daughter of James Johnson of Dunham, Cheshire. When she was in her late teens, in 1572, she was living in London with her uncle when she was lured away by a man claiming he could place her in service with a lady. Instead, he took her to a house in Paddington where she was held until the man's master, George Puttenham (1529-October 1590) arrived. According to her later deposition, Puttenham "had his pleasure carnally with her" and for the next three years moved her from house to house as his concubine. In the spring of 1575, she was at his farm in Upton Grey when Puttenham's wife, who lived only four miles away at Herriard, Hampshire, discovered her there. Elizabeth was not Puttenham's only victim. Her case and the stories of a number of other innocent young women are preserved in the records relating to Puttenham's divorce case (see ELIZABETH COWDRAY). A detailed account of all of these instances can be found in Stephen W. May, "George Puttenham’s Lewd and Illicit Career," Texas Studies in Literature and Language 50 (2), pp. 143-176.
see ISABEL LINDLEY
see JOAN LANGEFORD
see KATHERINE GITTENS
see SABINE SAUNDERS
URSULA JOHNSON (d.1603+)
Ursula Johnson was the "dearly beloved mistress" of Zachariah Lok of St. Clement Danes, London (1561-1603). After his wife died in 1596, he intended "by God's grace" to marry her, but he never did. His will, made in January 1603 and proved April 4, 1603, named Ursula as executrix. No children are mentioned.
see ANNE BELLAMY
see ELEANOR SOMERSET
see ELIZABETH SALUSBURY
see MARY BERKELEY
MRS. JONES (d.1597+) (maiden name unknown)
A Mrs. Jones is listed as mother of maids at the court of Queen Elizabeth in 1588/9. Her identity is unknown, but it is unlikely that she was either Eleanor Somerset or Elizabeth Salusbury. She still held that position in 1597 when she was reprimanded for allowing two of the maids of honor to watch the earl of Essex play at ballon without first getting permission from the queen. Another candidate suggested by a correspondent of mine is Anne Doddington, daughter of Sir Giles Doddington (Dodington) of Fayland, Wraxall, Somersetshire and Jane Morgan. She married John Jones of Treowen (d. before 1609) in 1563 and had William (1578-June 27, 1640), Florence, Jane, and Elizabeth, but there is no indication that she was ever at court.
see SARAH BAVAND
see ANNE LEWIS
see REBECCA BRETT
AGNES JORDAN (d. January 29, 1546)
Agnes Jordan was abbess of Syon in Isleworth, near Sheen, from 1521-1539. She was the sister of Isabel Jordan or Jordayn, prioress and later abbess of Wilton, who was described, in 1528, as "ancient, wise, and discreet." Isabel had died by March 1533. In 1530, Agnes commissioned (with John Fewteren, the confessor-general) a printing of the Mirror of Our Lady, a commenary on the sisters’ office. Syon was a Bridgettine Abbey. The Order of the Most Holy Saviour had been founded by St. Bridget of Sweden (1304-1373). As abbess, Agnes ruled over both men and women and provided lodging for well-to-do ladies who wished to retire from the world. She was both host and jailer to Lady Margaret Douglas from November 1536 until October or November 1537. Margaret was confined because of her unauthorized marriage to Lord Thomas Howard, one of the duke of Norfolk's younger sons. In a letter written to Thomas Cromwell, Agnes complained about the number of manservants Margaret had with her and the possibility that she might use them to send messages to Lord Thomas in the Tower of London. Margaret apparently had both her own servants and Howard's with her until Cromwell intervened. By the time Lady Margaret was confined at Syon a second time in 1540, the nunnery had been dissolved. It was suppressed on November 25, 1539 and the fifty-two choir nuns, four lay sisters, twelve brothers, and five lay brothers dispersed. Agnes received an annuity of £200. She rented a farm house, Southlands, near Denham, Buckinghamshire, and lived there with nine other sisters from Syon. Portrait: a brass plate in Denham Church.
see ANNE TEMMES
ISABEL JORDAN (d.c.1534)
Isabel Jordan was prioress at the convent of Wilton when the abbess, Cecily Willoughby, died on April 24, 1528. Described as "ancient, wise and discreet" she was the favorite of the sisters to become the next abbess. Politics, however, intruded. Anne Boleyn had the attention of the king and her brother-in-law, William Carey, had two sisters who were nuns at Wilton. The king thus proposed that Eleanor Carey become abbess, until it was found that she had two children by two different priests. Finally, on July 18, 1528, Isabel was confirmed as abbess, but she was not given full control of the convent finances until November 24, 1528. She faced other difficulties as well: an outbreak of the sweat, a fire that destroyed the dormitory, and insubordination from some of the nuns. Isabel may have tried to resign her office. The date of her death is not recorded, but it was before March 12, 1534, when the nuns were licensed to elect her successor. Biography: entry in the Oxford DNB under "Jordayne, Isabel."
see DOROTHY GATES
JANE JOSSELYN (d.1559)
Jane Josselyn was the daughter of Sir John Josselyn of Newhall, Boreham, Essex and Hyde Hall, Sawbridgeworth, Hertfordshire (c.1460-c.1525) and Philippa Bradbury (d.1530+). She married Nicholas Wentworth of Burnham, Buckinghamshire (c.1482-January 24, 1556/7). Their children were Peter (1524-November 10, 1596), Joan, Henry (c.1531-January 1,1613/14), Paul (1534-January 13,1594), Francis (1535-1564), and Clare or Clara (c.1537-before 1586). Wentworth was chief porter of Calais. By late 1543, one Gregory Wisdom, a physician and astrologer, was a trusted employee of the Wentworth family. He was, in fact, also a con artist. He was entrusted with a coat worth at least £8, asked to keep it in his London house for the use of the Peter Wentworth. According to Alec Ryrie's The Sorcerer's Tale, Wisdom traveled to Lillingstone Lovell (a part of Oxfordshire surrounded by Buckinghamshire), the Wentworth seat, in November or December of 1543 and left wearing one of Wentworth's silk shirts and with a purse full of Wentworth's gold and riding Wentworth's horse. There is one problem with this. It was not until 1546 that King Henry VIII gave Wentworth the manor of Lillingstone Lovell in exchange for other lands. That point aside, documents indicated that Wentworth sent a man in pursuit of Wisdom and the shirt and money were recovered. On November 27, 1544, however, depositions were taken in the Court of Requests because Wentworth was suing Wisdom, claiming he had stolen the coat. Wisdom claimed it had been turned over to Wentworth's men. Lady Wentworth (Wentworth was knighted in 1544) appears to have believed Wisdom, and Ryrie hints that the patient/physician relationship may have been suspiciously close. Wentworth made his will on February 7, 1551/2 and it was proved June 24, 1557. Jane was buried at Burnham on August 26, 1559.
JUANA OF CASTILE (November 16, 1479-April 12, 1555)
Juana or Joanna of Castile was the daughter of Ferdinand of Aragon (d.1516) and Isabella of Castile (d.1504) and inherited the kingdom of Castile on her mother’s death. She married Philip the Fair, archduke of Austria, duke of Burgundy, and count of Flanders (1478-1506) in 1496. Why include a Spanish queen in a listing of Tudor women? Because Juana and her husband, on their way to Castile, were driven ashore in England in 1506 and remained there for some months, and because Catherine of Aragon was Juana’s sister, and because after Philip’s death, Juana’s name was suggested as a second wife for Henry VII. Juana of Castile is best remembered, however, for being mad. She was passionately devoted to Philip, and extremely jealous. Some even whispered that she might have poisoned him in a fit of rage. After his death, she refused to allow his body to be buried and kept it with her. Her father was eventually forced to intervene and she was locked up for her own safety. In England, however, she made a favorable impression in King Henry. She apparently had a “handsome” figure and was quite beautiful. She had six children with Philip, the last born posthumously: Eleanor (1498-1558), Charles (1500-1558), Isabella (1501-1526), Ferdinand (1503-1564), Mary (1505-1558), and Catherine (1507-1578). Portraits: there are a number of portraits of Juana, including one with her father-in-law, husband, and three of their children.
Alice Judde was the daughter of Sir Andrew Judde (c.1490-September 4, 1558) and his first wife, Mary Mirfyn (d.1542). In 1554, she married Thomas "Customer" Smythe (1522-June 7, 1591), collector of customs duties for the port of London. They had at least thirteen children, twelve of whom lived to adulthood—Mary (b.1554), Ursula (b.1555), Andrew (b.1556; d. yng), John (1557-1608), Thomas (1558-1625), Henry (b.1559/60), Joan (1560-1622) Katherine (1561-1616), Richard (1563-1628), Alice (b.1564), Robert (b.1567), Simon (b.1570), and Elizabeth (1572-1631). Alice was a benefactor to her father's company, the skinners. The family seat was at Westenhanger, Kent after 1575. Her husband's will, dated May 22, 1591 and proved October 29, 1591, left her the lease on the London house. Portrait: 1579-80 by Cornelius Ketel. NOTE: Smythe commissioned portraits of himself, his wife, and at least eight of their children from Ketel at the end of 1579.
see JOAN CROMWELL
see MARY MATHEWS; MARY MIRFYN
text ©2008-15 Kathy Lynn Emerson (all rights reserved)