Kathy Lynn Emerson
to update and correct
her very out-of-date
Wives and Daughters: The Women of Sixteenth-Century England (1984)
NOTE: this document exists only in electronic format
and is ©2008-14 Kathy Lynn Emerson (all rights reserved)
see ANNE or AGNES BLOUNT
see ELEANOR RIGGES
MARY LACON (1506-April 27, 1563)
Mary Lacon was the daughter of Sir Thomas Lacon of Willey, Shropshire (d.1536) and Mary Corbet. Her first husband was Thomas Acton of Sutton, Worcestershire (1476-January 2, 1547). Their children were Lancelot (d. yng), Gabriel (d. yng.), and Joyce (1532-February 10, 1595). Her second husband, as his second wife, was George Vernon of Hodnet, Shropshire (d.c.1554). Their children were George, Edward, Dorothy (d.1599) and Anne (d.1570). Vernon's will, dated December 21, 1554 and proved January 12, 1555, named Mary his executrix. Mary made her own will on April 13, 1563 and it was proved May 18, 1563. She left her younger daughters, Dorothy and Anne Vernon, 900 marks to be divided between them. £400 of this was their inheritance from their father as specified in his will. Mary's eldest daughter, Joyce Lucy (neé Acton) and her husband, Sir Thomas Lucy, were to take responsibility for both the girls and their inheritance. The entire will can be found at http://www.oxford-shakespeare.com. Portrait: effigy on Acton monument, Tenbury Wells, Worcestershire.
ANNE LACY (1499-1561/2)
Anne Lacy was the daughter and heiress of Walter Lacy of London and his wife Lucy (d.c.1533). By a marriage settlement dated April 26, 1513/14, she married Charles Knyvett of London, Princethorp, Warwickshire, Hamerton, Huntingdonshire, Leigh, Kent, and Winwick, Northamptonshire (c.1478-before October 22, 1528), a close kinsman of the Duke of Buckingham, in whose downfall he played a part. Their children were (possibly) Richard (1511-November 1, 1557), (definitely) Anthony (d. March 1, 1554), William, Lucy (1522-October 1, 1577), Anne (1527-1571+), Alice (d. between 1556 and 1562), and Ellen. Star Chamber proceedings for 1509-47 contain the record of a suit brought by Lucy Lacy and Anne Knyvett against several men for stealing goods, apparel, plate and jewels from the plaintiff's house in London. Anne married second, before June 10, 1533, John Sibyll of Syble (according to Magna Carta Ancestry). Some sources give his surname as Clifford. She spent the last part of her life with her daughter, Lucy Gates, in Seamer, Yorkshire. She wrote her will on January 16, 1561/2. It was proved March 10. 1561/2.
see MARY RYTHER
ALICE LAKYN (d.1533)
(maiden name unknown)
Alice was married twice, both times to members of the Mercers' Company. Her first husband was Richard Lakyn (d.1510). By 1495, Lakyn had a shop on the front of the Broad Seld on Cheapside and owned lands in Canterbury and Dartford, Kent and in Middlesex, and a London house in Milk Street. He and Alice had a son who predeceased him and two daughters, Elizabeth (d. by 1525) and Margaret (d.1510+). In his will, Lakyn left Alice his dwelling house and all other properties except those in Canterbury, which went to Elizabeth and her husband, William Browne (d.1525). Alice's second husband was John Barnard (d.1537), by whom she had a son, James (d.1540). In 1528, they owned three messuages, six cottages, and over a hundred acres of land in Chelsea, plus property in Kent. They continued to occupy the house in Milk Street until Alice's death on Midsummer Eve, 1533. Three days later, members of the Mercer's Company repossessed it from the her widower.
see SYLVESTRA DEANE
ELIZABETH LAMBERT (c. 1450-c.1527)
Elizabeth Lambert was the daughter of John Lambert (d.1487), Warden of the Mercer’s Company of London, and Amy Marshall. She is better known to history as “Jane Shore.” How did Elizabeth end up as Jane? Probably because early records of her give no first name, referring to her only as “Mistress Shore,” the name she acquired by her first marriage. Later, writers needed a first name for their fictionalized histories and settled on Jane. However it came about, this young woman was from a good family and taught to read and write. She was married to William Shore, a goldsmith, but the marriage was annulled in 1476 on grounds of his impotence. At about that time, she caught the eye of King Edward IV and became the king’s mistress. Unlike many others who enjoyed Edward’s favors, he kept her until his death in 1483. During that time, her intercession on behalf of Eton College, which Edward wanted to close, earned her that institution’s gratitude. It is due to historians there that we know what little we do of her life. After Edward died, Elizabeth reportedly shared her favors with two noblemen, Thomas Grey, 1st marquess of Dorest and William Hastings, 1st baron Hastings. Neither of them were able to protect her when Richard III declared himself king in his nephew’s stead. Both were accused of treason and “Mistress Shore” faced similar charges. She was charged with sorcery and with conspiring with Edward’s queen, Elizabeth Woodville, to kill King Edward. The accusations were groundless and probably made to coerce her into giving evidence against others. They were reduced to a charge of harlotry and she was made to do penance at Paul’s Cross, after which she was imprisoned in Ludgate. While she was there, the king’s solicitor, Thomas Lynom, fell in love with her and married her, much against the advice of King Richard. Richard, however, eventually pardoned the new Mistress Lynom and the marriage lasted some thirty years during which they had at least one child, a daughter. Most stories say “Jane Shore” died in poverty. This is probably an exaggeration, extrapolated from the account Sir Thomas More left of meeting her during the reign of Henry VIII. She was buried in Hinxworth Church, Hertfordshire. Portrait: her figure appears on her parents’ memorial brass in Hinxworth Church.
JANE LAMBERT (d.1598+)
Jane Lambert was the daughter of William Lambert of Hide Street, Winchester. She was the long-time mistress of William Paulet, 3rd marquis of Winchester (c.1532-November 24, 1598) and the mother of his four illegitimate sons, Sir William (d. March 3, 1628/9), Sir John, Sir Hercules (b.1574), and Hector (b.1578). Some genealogies also list a daughter, Susanna. They went by the surname Pawlett/Powlett/Poulet. In 1594, Ashmore Manor was put in trust for Jane and her children and she received other property as well. After her lover died, his family successfully contested his will, which had made three Lamberts executors and beneficiaries. They also brought suit against Jane in Chancery, charging her with "making him a stranger and enemy" to friends and kin, "procuring a preacher to write a book justifying the said marquess" leaving his wife and marrying Mistress Lambert, opposing the marriage of the marquess's son, putting her brothers and friends in influential posts, and keeping his kin from access to him. Jane subsequently married a young man of eighteen, Gerrard Fleetwood of Crawley, Hampshire (d.1647+).
MARGARET LAMBRUN (d.1587+) (maiden name unknown)
In my humble opinion, the story of Margaret Lambrun (Lambourne/Lambrin) and her attempt to assassinate Elizabeth Tudor is a fabrication. The earliest it has been found so far is an undocumented entry in A new and general biographical dictionary (1762). However, I include her here because she is mentioned on several websites. I first became aware of her when I received a query in August 2012 from Callie Brown in Ely, Cambridgeshire, asking me if I knew the name of a titled lady who entered the royal garden dressed as a man and carrying two loaded muskets concealed under her coat. Apparently motivated by revenge for the execution of Mary Queen of Scots, she meant to shoot the queen and then commit suicide. One musket went off by accident, killing a peacock, and she was captured. After hearing her story, Queen Elizabeth supposedly pardoned her. Callie wrote that this was a question on a quiz and that she'd also found a similar story in which an unnamed woman hid in a closet dressed as a page with the intent to kill Queen Elizabeth with a knife. The answer to the quiz was Lady Margaret Lambourne, which was not helpful, but Callie followed up with the quiz setter and was sent the alternate spelling of Lambrun, which does pop up in search engines. There are a number of variations on the story of Margaret Lambrun, who appears to be a Scotswoman and the widow of a man who served in the English household of Mary Queen of Scots. That he died shortly after the queen was executed, and was possibly executed himself, is given as the real reason his widow sought revenge. This story is not documented in sixteenth century primary sources and is not included in any reputable biography of either Mary Queen of Scots or Elizabeth Tudor that I have seen, nor does the surname Lambrun, Lambrin, or Lambourne turn up among the members of the captive queen's household. Furthermore, if a woman had tried to assassinate Queen Elizabeth, I very much doubt the queen would have been inclined to pardon her. At the least, she'd have been imprisoned. More likely, she'd have been tried and executed. And there would certainly have been a contemporary record of the case. The 1762 version says she was given safe conduct into France. For more on the “legend” check out http://ahistoryblog.com/?p=1036
see ANNE LUDDINGTON
see MAUD PARR
Joan Langeford went into service in the household of Christopher Mountjoy in about 1604. In 1612, she testified in court about the betrothal of Mountjoy’s daughter and the role Mountjoy’s lodger, William Shakespeare played in it. By then she was Joan Johnson, having married Thomas Johnson, a basket maker, at St. Olave’s on September 8, 1605. By 1612, they were living in Ealing, Middlesex.
ISABEL LANGLEY (d. December 3, 1587)
Isabel Langley was the daughter of Richard Langley of Owsthorpe, Yorkshire (x. December 1, 1586) and Agnes Hansby. She was already married to William Foster of Earswick and pregnant with their child when her father’s house of Owsthorpe (sometimes called Grimthrope) was raided by priest catchers and he was arrested and charged with harboring. Isabel was also present but she escaped during the raid. While her father was in prison in York Castle she visited him there and, seeing the wretched conditions under which recusants were kept, continued to visit even after his execution. She was then arrested herself for giving aid to Catholics and she and the child died as a result of the conditions of her imprisonment.
see JANE ASHLEY
see URSULA TILSWORTH
see ESTHER INGLIS
see AGNES OF ELTHAM
ELIZABETH LANGTON (d.1506+) (maiden name unknown)
Elizabeth Langton was a silkwoman of London. A Jane Langton, called a silkwoman in her will of 1475, mentions her son John (d.1502) and his second wife Elizabeth. A Thomas Langton supplied silk to the king in 1498-9. Elizabeth Langton is listed as the king's silkwoman in 1502-3, 1504-5, and 1505-6. In 1503, she supplied quantities of silk and other goods to the royal family to the value of £101 17s. 5½ d. She also traded regularly with two merchants of Genoa. All this led Maria Hayward, in Dress at the Court of King Henry VIII, to suggest that Elizabeth was the widow of Thomas. It is possible there were two Elizabeth Langtons, both silkwomen, but more likely that Thomas is a mistake for John. Another Thomas Langton of London, a wealthy skinner, died in 1551. Doubtless the families were connected. Hayward further suggests that Elizabeth may have remarried and is therefore the Elizabeth Worship who was the king's silkwoman in 1510-11, 1516-17, 1517-18, 1520-21, and 1523-25. She further theorizes that Catherine, John, and Lettice Worship, who later figure in the royal accounts, were Elizabeth's children.
see MARY MATHEWS
see EMILIA BASSANO
Joan Larke was the daughter of Peter Larke of Huntingdonshire. Larke and his wife had three sons—Thomas (d.1530), Peter, and William—and supposedly died in Ireland. Joan lived in a "noncanonical marriage" with Thomas Wolsey (1471-1530), later Cardinal Wolsey, in the house in Bridewell granted to him on January 10, 1510. It had twelve gardens and an orchard. Wolsey is also said to have had a mistress who was the sister of John Winter or Wynter of Bristol (d.1554). It seems likely this was a different woman. Or else Joan had a sister who married Winter. In any case, Joan Larke is generally accepted to have been the mother of Wolsey’s two children, Dorothy (1512-c.1553), who was adopted by John Clansey or Clasey and later became a nun at Shaftesbury, and Thomas (1513-c.1553), who went by the name Thomas Wynter and was archdeacon of Cornwall from 1537-1543. Alternate life dates given for Thomas Wynter are c.1510-c.1543. Eventually, Wolsey's advancement in the church made Joan an embarrassment to him. He arranged her marriage to George Legh of Adlington, Cheshire (1497-1529), providing her dowry. Later he helped the Leghs in a property dispute with Sir John Stanley, natural son of the Bishop of Ely, by imprisoning Stanley until he gave up the contested lease. By Legh, Joan had a son named Thomas (1527-1548) and daughters named Isabel or Elizabeth (c.1525-1583), Margaret, and Mary. After Legh's death, Joan married George Paulet, brother of the marquis of Winchester.
CATHERINE LASKI (d.1558+) (maiden name unknown)
Catherine or Katherina Laski was probably an Englishwoman. Certainly she was living in London in 1553 when she became the second wife of John Laski or à Lasco (1499-January 8,1560), a Polish-born reformer, the former archdeacon of Warsaw, who was invited to England in 1548 by Thomas Cranmer for discussions of Protestant union at Lambeth. He became superintendent of the Strangers' Church of London when it was incorporated in July 1550. It combined the Dutch church and the French/Walloon church and also had a small Italian congregation. Toward the end of 1552, his first wife died of the sweating sickness, which Laski also caught. He married Catherine a few months later to take care of his children. He and Catherine had five more children, including Samuel. Shortly after their marriage, with the death of Edward VI, England became dangerous for reformers. They went first to Denmark, then Emden, then Frankfurt, and finally to Poland in 1556, where he was secretary to the king and worked on translating the bible into Polish. He died in Pinczow, leaving his family in poverty. The local nobility gave them a gift of 289 gulden but, in 1564, Catherine wrote to Duke Albrecht of East Prussia to request financial support. Laski's entry in the Oxford DNB reports that the family soon reverted to Roman Catholicism and disappeared from the historical record.
MARY LASSELLS or LASCELLES (d.1542+)
Mary Lassells the daughter of Richard Lascelles of Stourton and Gaytford, Nottinghamshire (d.1520) and Dorothy Sandford. She was a nurse to the children of Lord William Howard and his first wife, Katherine Broughton. When Lady Howard died on April 23, 1535, Mary entered the service of Lord William’s mother (Agnes, dowager duchess of Norfolk) as a chamberer. Catherine Howard, the duchess’s step-granddaughter, was also part of that household and Mary was in a position to observe the behavior of Catherine and the other young women living there. She became alarmed by the attention paid Catherine by a music tutor named Henry Manox and took it upon herself to warn Manox that Catherine’s relatives would “undo” him if they found out. Manox told her to mind her own business and boasted that Catherine had promised him her maidenhead. Mary was still in the duchess’s household when Catherine grew tired of Manox and entered into an affair with another man, Francis Dereham. Catherine ordered Mary to steal the key to the maidens’ chamber so that she could let him in. Another of the duchess’s servants, Alice Wilkes, told Mary that Dereham spent his nights in Catherine’s bed. By the time Catherine married King Henry VIII, Mary had wed a man named John Hall and was living in Sussex. When her brother, John Lassells, suggested that she use her old acquaintance with Catherine to obtain a post at court. Mary refused, telling him that Catherine was “light, both in living and conditions.” When she provided further details, Lassells, a dedicated reformer, felt compelled to repeat what she had said to Archbishop Thomas Cranmer. Cranmer shared the information with Lord Audley and Edward Seymour, earl of Hertford. The earl of Southampton was sent to Sussex to collect Mary’s testimony, with the end result that Queen Catherine was arrested, charged with adultery, and eventually executed. Unlike others who knew about Catherine’s past, Mary Lassells did not spend any time in prison. Because she had brought the matter to light, the king intervened directly to prevent her arrest. Her brother, however, fared less well. Five years later his zeal for reform led to his execution. He was burnt at the stake for heresy.
see AUDREY CUTTS
EDITH LATIMER (c.1450-1518)
Edith Latimer was the daughter of Sir Nicholas Latimer of Buckland Manor, Duntish, Dorset (c.1430-1505) and Joanna Hody. Her first husband was John Greene of Stotfold, Bedfordshire (d. before 1483), by whom she had two daughters, Cecily (d. before 1522) and Elizabeth (d. before 1512). She next married Sir John Mordaunt of Turvey, Bedfordshire (December 30, 1465-September 11, 1504) and was the mother of John, 1st baron Mordaunt (1490-August 18, 1562), Robert, William, and Joan. After his death, she married Sir John Carew. Portrait: effigy in All Saints Church, Turvey, Bedfordshire.
see KATHERINE PARR
Anne Launcelyn is said by some sources to have been the eldest daughter and coheiress of Sir Thomas Launcelyn of Launcelynsbury, Eynesbury, Huntingdonshire, or of John Launcelyn of Oxenbridge, Bedfordshire (d.1435) and his wife Margaret. However, recent research by Douglas Richardson has produced records of a lawsuit from 1505 indicating that Anne’s father was a John Launcelyn who died c.1505 and that she was his fourth daughter and coheiress. The suit regarded land in Bedfordshire. Anne married first Godfrey Oxenbrigge, later bailiff of Winchelsea. In 1491, she was appointed wet nurse to the infant Henry Tudor (later Henry VIII). To qualify, she must recently have had a child of her own, since her job was to breastfeed the royal baby. She lived primarily at Eltham, where the royal nursery was located, but the downside of her job, as detailed by Mary Louise Bruce in The Making of Henry VIII was that she was required to abstain from sex and was held responsible for any ill-health the baby suffered. If he had colic, she was purged. If her milk supply was inadequate, she would have to eat stewed udders of goats or sheep or powdered earthworms, since those cures were supposed to produce more milk. Bruce further lists the qualities believed by physicians of the time to be necessary in a wet nurse: "rosy cheeks, a white skin, thick reddish hair, a fleshy body and a hopeful, brave, amorous disposition . . . a thick neck, broad breasts and be aged about twenty-five, be of a respectable status if not actually a gentlewoman, and without vice." It is unknown if Anne exhibited all of these qualities. Bruce suggests that she remained in the household until Henry was seven and she may also have been one of Catherine of Aragon's chamberwomen. Her second husband was Walter Luke (d.1544), Justice of Common Pleas, by whom she had a son, Nicholas (1505-1563). On July 3, 1515, Anne received two annuities of £20.
see ANNE CONSTABLE
ELIZABETH LAW (d.1596)
Elizabeth Law was the daughter of John Law. She married Alexander Ray of Cambridge (d.1592), by whom she had at least one son who predeceased his parents. Ray was a mercer and draper living in St. Mary's parish in one of the largest houses in Cambridge. He was lord mayor in 1550-51 and again in 1566-67. In 1564, during the queen's visit to Cambridge, the 4th duke of Norfolk was housed in the Law house. In 1572, Elizabeth and her husband jointly purchased Paul’s Inn in St. Michael's parish. Later they acquired a forty year lease in her name on the manor (or grange) of Saffron Walden. There followed at least two lawsuits in the court of requests over this property. Their outcome is unknown but as Ray's widow Elizabeth continued to live at Saffron Walden until her death.
ALICE LAWRENCE (d.1493+)
Alice Lawrence was prioress of Kingston St. Michael, Wiltshire. The house was controlled by the Bishops of Salisbury, which did not please the nuns. In 1490, Alice hired a Franciscan to forge a papal bull. It was addressed to the Abbot of Glastonbury and transferred rights to the priory to him. When the forgery was exposed, Alice was forced to resign. She remained at Kingston St. Michael, however, and was one of the nine nuns there in 1493 under her successor, Katharine Moleyns (d.1506). Katharine had been a nun at Shaftesbury before her appointment as prioress.
AGNES LAWSON (c.1493-1567)
Agnes Lawson was the daughter of William Lawson (c.1480-June 19, 1518) and a daughter of Sir Richard Horsley of Thernham. She was one of four sisters, two of whom became Benedictine nuns. Joan Lawson (d.c.1557) was prioress of Neasham Abbey. Agnes was appointed prioress of St. Bartholomew’s, Newcastle-upon-Tyne c.1523, on the death of the previous prioress, Joan Baxster. The appointment was declared invalid by the Bishop of Durham because it infringed upon his rights, but she was reinstated by a new and “proper” election “in consequence of her personal worth” and in spite of the fact that she was not quite thirty, the age that was the usual minimum for a position of leadership. St. Bartholomew’s was preserved in 1537 but suppressed on January 3, 1540. She received a relatively small pension, only £6, but she must have had other income because she was able to keep a large house in Gateshead, Newcastle together with flocks of sheep and herds of cattle. She had her own chaplain, too. She died at Gateshead and was buried in the parish church. Her will is dated March 14, 1567 (another source says March 11, 1565).
see DOROTHY CONSTABLE
see MARGARET BROWNE
ANNE LEA (c.1568-1605+) (maiden name unknown)
In 1596, William Wayte brought suit against William Shakespeare, Francis Langley, Dorothy Soer, wife of John, and Anne Lee for threatening him with death. Leslie Hotson in his Shakespeare vs. Swallow writes of three possible candidates to be this Anne Lee, but the most likely seems to be the wife of a Southwark brewer, John Lea of St. Olave's. Anne Lea had a connection to the Brooke family (see AGNES BROOKE), who also had legal dealings with William Wayte and with his stepfather, William Gardiner. She gave a deposition on their behalf in 1602. She appeared yet again as a witness in a suit between William Gardiner the younger and his brother Thomas in 1605.
see AVICE ASHFIELD
see ALICE BROMFIELD
Elizabeth Leake was the daughter of Thomas Leake of Hasland (1458-1523) and Margaret Fox. She married John Hardwick (d. January 29, 1528) and by him had Mary, Jane, James (1526-1581), Elizabeth (1527-February 13, 1608), and Alice. Eighteen months after her husband’s death, the Court of Wards took his estate, which included Hardwick Hall, and left the family with no financial support. They were not wealthy enough to buy back their home. Elizabeth married Ralph Leche of Chatsworth (d.1550), by whom she had three more daughters, Elizabeth (d. January 1601), Jane, and Margaret. Her second husband was imprisoned in the Fleet for debt from 1538-44 and during that time the family lived at Hardwick Hall, possibly renting it from the Court of Wards. It was left to Elizabeth’s daughter, Elizabeth Hardwick, to restore the family’s fortunes.
Marcella Leake was the daughter of Thomas Leake of Hasland (1458-1523) and Margaret Fox. She married a man named Linacre (Linaker/Lenecker/Lynacre). She lived with her niece, Bess of Hardwick from the mid-1540s into the 1570s, acting as companion and housekeeper. Maud Stepney Rawson's Bess of Harwick and her Circle says "Aunt Lenecker" lived with Bess after her first widowhood.
see ELIZABETH LEAKE
ELIZABETH LECHE (d. January 1601)
Elizabeth Leche was the daughter of Ralph Leche or Leech of Chatsworth. Derbyshire (d.1550) and Elizabeth Leake (1499-c.1570). Elizabeth was the half sister of Bess of Hardwick and was living with her in London in 1558, before she married Anthony Wingfield of Sibton, Suffolk (c.1520-April 3, 1593), a gentleman usher to Queen Elizabeth. He had three daughters by his first wife (Katherine Blennerhassett, who d.1558), Ursula (1550-1628), Margaret, and Elizabeth. He does not seem to have had any children with Elizabeth Leche. Elizabeth's letters to her half sister with news of court, when she was a gentlewoman of the Privy Chamber, date from 1568-85, although she may have been there as early as 1559, immediately following her marriage to Wingfield. Letters from her husband to her, written in 1575, when she was absent from court, are also extant. In 1598-1600, and possibly earlier, Mistress Wingfield was mother of maids. Her second husband was George Pollard of Tetbury, Gloucestershire. “Mrs. Wingfield, wife of Pollard” was buried January 6, 1601 in St. James, Clerkenwell (London).
Jane Leche was the second daughter of Ralph Leche or Leech of Chatsworth. Derbyshire (d.1550) and Elizabeth Leake (1499-c.1570) and half sister of Bess of Hardwick, with whom she was very close. In 1538-44, her father was in Fleet prison for debt. In 1548, after Bess married Sir William Cavendish, Jane joined her household (paid £3 a year) and remained one of Bess's waiting gentlewomen into the next century. Jane was the one left in charge of the Cavendish children at Northaw (Hertfordshire) in 1549 when Bess and Sir William returned to London. At some point before 1552, she married Thomas Kniveton of Mercaston, Derbyshire (d.1591), by whom she had Mary, Elizabeth, George, St. Loe, William, Margaret, and Anne. In November of 1552, Lady Cavendish wrote from London to admonish her servants at Chatsworth, where Jane had again been left in charge of the Cavendish children, for their behavior toward Jane. They had denied her unspecified things that were "needful." The letter reads, in part: "I wolde be lothe to have any stranger so yoused yn my howse and then assure your selfe I cane not lyke ytt to have my syster so yousede." Mary S. Lovell, in her biography of Bess, suggests that Jane may have just given birth, since there is mention of a midwife and Bess also refers to Jane "in the case as she has been." According to another of Bess's biographers, David N. Durant, it was Jane who ran the estate at Chatsworth during Bess's third marriage, to Sir William St. Loe, whenever Bess was at court. Just after Kniveton's death, she accompanied her half sister to court, where they stayed for eight weeks. She was granted administration of her husband's estate on December 23, 1591. Jane's son George had joined Bess's household by 1595 (by which time Bess was countess of Shrewsbury). A letter exists written by Jane's son William to his mother at Hardwick in the summer of 1604, the latest mention I’ve so far found of her.
JOAN LECHE or LEECH (d.1530)
Joan Leche was the daughter of Dennis Leech of Wellingborough, Northamptonshire and his wife, Elizabeth. She married twice, first, between 1470 and 1475, to a tailor, Thomas Bodley of Exeter and St. Botolph's Bishopsgate, London (1460-1492), by whom she had four children, including James (1488-1514), John (d. 1514) Elizabeth (1490-before 1530) and Denise or Dionyse (d.1560). He left an estate worth £1000. She probably continued to run his business. Joan’s second husband, married about March 1495, was Thomas Bradbury of St. Stephen Coleman Street, London and Braughing, Hertfordshire (d. January 10, 1510), a mercer who was Lord Mayor of London in 1509. He made his will January 9, 1510. After his death, Joan spent twenty years as a widow. She inherited a mansion in Catte Street and purchased a great deal more real estate and became very wealthy. She established a perpetual chantry for both her husbands and herself in St. Stephen’s, Coleman Street. In 1511, she offered her house as a temporary location for Mercers' Company's St. Thomas Tide banquet. This was held there for the next two years. The house was later given to the Mercers. Joan endowed a school in Saffron Walden, where her brother was vicar from 1489-1521 and made many other charitable gifts. Her will was dated March 2, 1530 and proved April 26, 1530. More details of her life can be found in Anne F. Sutton’s “Lady Joan Bradbury (d.1530),” in Medieval London Widows, 1300-1500 (edited by Caroline M. Barron and Anne F. Sutton) and in Anne F. Sutton, The Mercery of London.
see ALICE KEMPE
see ANNE HASSALL; ANNE PAGET
see ELIZABETH PEPPARD: ELIZABETH ROLLESTON
see JANE RESTWOLD
see JOYCE SUTTON
see LETTICE PENYSTON
see MARGARET GRENVILLE; MARGARET WYATT
see MARY DARCY
ELIZABETH LEGGE (1580-1685)
The same brief record of Elizabeth Legge, an Irishwoman rather than an Englishwoman, is found in Memoirs of Several Ladies of Great Britain (1752) by George Ballard and The Female Worthies (1766) by S. Crowder. She was the daughter of Edward Legge of Gease Hill, King's County, Ireland (d.1616) and Mary Walsh of Kildare. Her major accomplishment seems to have been living to the age of 105, although of her six brothers and six sisters, three (John, Margaret, and Anne) were also said to have surpassed the one hundred mark. The accounts also state that she had a genius for languages and was well versed in Latin, English, French, Spanish, and Irish. Nothing written or translated by Elizabeth had survived into the eighteenth century, although she was reputed to be a good poet. The story repeated in these volumes is that she spent too much time reading and writing by candlelight and thereby lost her sight. She was blind for many years before her death. She never married.
AGNES LEGH or LEIGH (d. between1566 and 1590)
Agnes Legh or Leigh was the daughter and coheir of Sir John Legh of Stockwell, Surrey (d.1566) and Elizabeth Darcy (d.1563+), from whom he was later divorced. He was the half brother of Queen Catherine Howard and was in prison at least twice. In August 1547, he had just been released from the Fleet and in 1550, he left the Tower for his daughter's house. At that time, she was married to her first husband, Sir Thomas Paston of London (d. September 4, 1550), a gentleman of the privy chamber. They had married by 1544 and had two sons, Henry (b.1545) and Edward (1550-March 24, 1630), and a daughter, Katherine (d.1605). Paston left Agnes a life interest in all his lands and named her executor with her father, her brother-in-law Clement Paston, and her husband's cousin, Richard Heydon, as overseers. Agnes's second husband was Edward Fitzgerald (Fitzgarrett/Garrett) (January 17, 1528/9-1590), younger brother of the 11th earl of Kildare. They had four sons and at least three daughters, including Gerald (d. February 11, 1612), who succeeded his cousin as 14th earl, Dudley, Thomas, Elizabeth, Lettice, and Douglass (a daughter, b.c.1566). In 1566, Agnes's inheritance included property in Dorset, Somerset, Surrey, and elsewhere, with conditions, and £50 worth of plate. For the entire will, see www.oxford-shakespeare.com. Agnes was buried in Stanwell parish church.
ANNE LEGH (1594-1677+)
Anne Legh was the daughter of Peter Legh of Lyme Cheshire and Bradley Hall, Lancashire (c.1563-February 17, 1636) and his first wife, Margaret Gerard (1570-July 3, 1603). On January 3, 1612/13 at Lyme she married Richard Bold of Bold, Lancashire (c.1588-1635). They had three sons and nine daughters including Radcliffe Bold (b.1615). Her second husband was James Dukenfield. Portrait: 1596, held by her great-grandmother, also named Margaret Gerard Legh, age 90.
CECILY LEGH (d.1542+)
Cecily Legh was the daughter of Piers or Peter Legh of Lyme, Cheshire (d. December 4, 1541) and Jane Gerard (d. May 5, 1510). In 1508, she married Sir Thomas Butler of Warrington, Lancashire (c.1494-September 15, 1550) and was the mother of Thomas (1513/14-1579), John, Margaret, Elizabeth, Jane, and Dorothy. By 1534, according to the History of Parliament entry for her son, the marriage had been dissolved and Butler had taken a new wife. Other sources say by 1542. None say why, but the marriage had been contracted to make peace between the two families and failed to do so. One account says that, in 1542, Thomas Butler and his tenants in Burtonwood took action against Sir Peter Legh, Cecily's grandfather, for obstructing his way from Bradley Acre to the church. This Sir Peter was probably Cecily's brother (d.1589), since her grandfather died in 1527.
see DOROTHY EGERTON
see ELIZABETH DARCY
ISABEL LEGH (before 1510-February 16, 1572/3)
Isabel Legh, sometimes called Isabel Howard, was the daughter of Ralph Legh of Stockwell, in Lambeth, Surrey (c.1470-November 6, 1509) and Joyce Culpepper (c.1480-1527+) and thus a half sister of Queen Catherine Howard. The History of Parliament identifies her as the daughter of Sir John Legh of Stockwell, Surrey, Ralph's brother. She married Edward Baynton of Bromham, Wiltshire (1480-November 27, 1544) on January 18, 1531 and had by him three children, Henry (b.1536), Francis (b.1537) and Anne (d.yng). Baynton was vice chamberlain to several of Henry VIII's queens. The History of Parliament suggests she served Anne Boleyn and Jane Seymour. In addition, Sir Edward's entry says that by March 14, 1539, the Bayntons had replaced Lady Kingston in supervising the joint household of Mary and Elizabeth Tudor. Isabel was at court during the tenure of her half sister. When Queen Catherine was sent to Syon House in the autumn of 1541, she was allowed to choose her own female attendants, on the condition that Isabel was one of them. Isabel also accompanied Catherine to the Tower. She was later a lady of the household extraordinary to Kathryn Parr. According to Charlotte Merton in The Women who served Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth, she was also part of Queen Mary's household in 1554-7. After Baynton's death and that of Isabel's stepdaughter, Bridget, in 1545, Isabel married Bridget's widower, Sir James Stumpe of Malmesbury and Bromham, Wiltshire (d. April 29, 1563). She brought Edington, Wiltshire to her second marriage, along with the household stuff at Edington, 1000 sheep, and all Baynton's plate, jewels, corn, and cattle. Stumpe had to deal with lawsuits over this inheritance. In 1550, Isable was granted the site and demesnes of Edington Abbey for a term of forty-one years. He made his will on April 28, 1563, naming Isabel his executor and leaving her, in addition to rents totaling £100 for her jointure, an interest in Bromham, Wiltshire and Edington. Before September 30, 1572, Isabel married Thomas Stafford of Bromham, Wiltshire.
JANE LEGH (d. 1575)
Jane Legh was the daughter of Piers Legh of Lyme, Cheshire (d.1542) and Margaret Tyldesley. In about 1518, she married Sir Thomas Gerard of Bryn, the father of her new sister-in-law, Margaret Gerard. They had three children, Thomas, Catherine, and a daughter who married Robert Charnocke. It was not a happy marriage. Gerard kept a concubine. In 1543, a document was drawn up whereby he promised to give her up and reconcile with Jane. The entire text can be found on pp. 35-6 of The House of Lyme by the Lady Newton (1917), available on Google Books. By 1546, however, Gerard had fallen back into his old ways and his wife charged him with "incontinence, assault, and imprisonment." They were divorced on November 27, 1550.
see JOAN LARKE
see JOYCE CULPEPPER
see MARGARET GERARD (2)
see MARY GROSVENOR
see AGNES HACKETT
see ALICE BARKER
ALICE LEIGH (1579-January 22, 1669)
Alice Leigh was the daughter of Sir Thomas Leigh of Stoneleigh, Warwickshire (d.1625) and Catherine Spencer. She married Sir Robert Dudley (August 7, 1574-September 6, 1649), as his second wife, and had seven daughters by him, five of whom lived to adulthood. They were Alicia (September 1597-1649), Frances (d.1663), Anne (d.1663), Catherine (d.1675), and Douglas (d.1635+). In July 1605, Alice’s husband deserted her to elope with his cousin, Elizabeth Southwell. There were numerous disputes over his right to property of his natural father, Robert Dudley, earl of Leicester, as well as over Alice’s rights. In general, the Crown sympathized with Alice’s situation. A private act of Parliament in 1621 gave her the right to act as a femme sole. On May 23, 1644, Charles I created Alice Duchess Dudley for life. She lived at Dudley House in St. Giles-in-the-Fields, Westminster and was buried at Stoneleigh. Portrait: possibly still at Trentham Hall.
see ANNE CAREW
ANNE LEIGH (d.1557)
Anne Leigh was the daughter of Sir John Leigh (d.1522) and Agnes Hackett. Either she of her half sister, Joan Fry, was a lady-in-waiting to Henry VII's mother, Margaret Beaufort. In 1512, Anne married Sir James Worsley of Appuldurcombe (d.1538), who had started his court career as a page to Prince Arthur. They had two sons, Richard (d.1565) and John (d.1580). In 1539, Henry VIII paid a visit to the Worsleys at Appuldurcombe Manor, Isle of Wight. Anne turned the chapel her father had founded at Gadshill into a free school and bought land worth twenty marks to fund it. Portrait: effigy in All Saint's Church, Godshill, Isle of Wight.
CATHERINE LEIGH (1539-1577)
Catherine Leigh was the daughter and heir of Sir Thomas Leigh (Lee/Legh) of London, Hogston, Middlesex, and St. Oswalds, Yorkshire (d. November 24, 1545) and Joan Cotton (d. January 1557). Her father was active in the dissolution of the monasteries and acquired leases on a number of monastic properties, making his London home in part of the former Haliwell Priory in Shoreditch. In his will, written on March 9, 1544, he assigned a third of his lands to the Crown for Catherine's wardship. The will was proved December 23, 1545. By October 1550, Catherine's mother had remarried, taking as her second husband Sir Thomas Chaloner (1521-65). Catherine became Chaloner's ward and he arranged her marriage to James Blount, 6th baron Mountjoy (c.1533-October 20, 1581). They were married May 17, 1558 and had two sons, William (1561-June 27, 1594) and Charles (1563-April 3, 1606). They were not the parents of Christopher (x.1601). Some genealogies also list an Ann and an Edward. Mountjoy was fascinated by alchemy and spend his fortune pursuing this interest. The biography of the earl of Huntingdon by Claire Cross recounts a small segment of the family's financial difficulties. Mountjoy owned two thirds of the manor of Canford in Dorset. Copperas ore was discovered there and there was the possibility of also producing alum (both were used in dyeing) and in 1564 mining operations were begun, but in 1567, Mountjoy and Catherine mortgaged their part of Canford to John Browne, Catherine's uncle. In 1568, Mountjoy assigned a mortgage on the manor of Puddletown, Dorset and leased his alum and copperas workings to George Carleton, another of Catherine's kinsman, and John Hastings. In 1570, the earl of Huntingdon bought Puddletown for £2500 and the title to the manor at Canford from Browne for £2100. Catherine was said to welcome this transaction as relief from the mass of debt her husband had accumulated. Some £30,000 in bonds and statutes had been charged by Mountjoy on the property. In 1572, Sir Thomas Smith and his associates leased a mining house at Poole from Lady Mountjoy as part of a scheme to try to make copper from iron. She hoped to salvage something for her sons, but Mountjoy continued raising mortgages on the mines. As long as Catherine lived, Huntingdon refrained from asserting control over his purchases, but after her death he laid claim to them. Her sons, William and Charles, promptly started legal proceedings against him, even though their father was still living. The litigation dragged on for another six years.
CATHERINE LEIGH (d.1625)
Catherine Leigh/Katherine Lee/Elizabeth Leigh was the daughter of Edward Leigh of Rushall, Staffordshire (c.1540-November 6, 1617) and Anne Fermor. In October 1591, Sir Francis Darcy of Isleworth, Middlesex (c.1550-November 29, 1641) was sent to the Tower because Catherine, a maid of honor, had given birth to his daughter at court. Darcy claimed they were secretly married, but that failed to mollify the queen. According the the History of Parliament, Catherine also spent time in the Tower before being reunited with her husband at Isleworth. They had three daughters, including Anne and Lettice. Portraits: effigy at Isleworth.
see DOROTHY KEMPE
see ISABEL HARVEY; ISABEL WORSLEY
see MARGERY SAUNDERS
WINIFRED LEIGH (c.1538-1621)
According to the History of Parliament entry for Winifred's second husband, John Colles, she was the illegitimate daughter of Sir Thomas Leigh of Stoneleigh, Warwickshire (1504-November 17, 1571), a stapler and mercer who was Lord Mayor of London in 1558-9. Most online genealogies add her to the list of children born to Leigh's wife, Alice Baker (c.1525-1600 or 1603), but the inquisition post mortem for Colles in 1608 refers to her as the "natural sister of Sir Thomas Leigh," Leigh's son and and heir. She married first Sir George Bond (c.1534-March 4, 1592), a haberdasher from a Buckland, Somerset family who was Lord Mayor of London in 1587. I’ve found two dates online for this marriage. One is February 12, 1561 in Middlesex. The other is June 23, 1569 in Walton at Stone, Hertfordshire. The first seems more likely. They had two daughters, Rose (d. July 31, 1648) and Ann (d.1628). In February 1596, at St. Jude's, Old Jewry, London, Winifred married John Colles of Barton Grange, Somerset (c.1541-February 18,1608) as his second wife. They had three sons and two daughters, including George (d.c.1633) and Humphrey (d.1633+). His will forbade mourning gowns at his funeral, indicating that the family had Puritan leanings.
ANNE LEIGHTON (1591-September 19, 1628)
Anne Leighton was the daughter of Sir Thomas Leighton of Feckenham, Worcestershire (1535-1609) and Elizabeth Knollys (June 15, 1549-c.1605). She was christened October 14, 1591 at the parish church of St. Mary the Virgin, Hanbury, Worcestershire. The family spent winters on the island of Guernsey, where Leighton was governor. In 1598, Leighton acquired the wardship of John St. John (1585-1648) and the lease of his lands with the idea of marrying him to Anne. They married in St. John's Church, Hackney on July 9, 1604 and made their home in Lydiard Tregoze, Wiltshire, which they shared with John's six sisters. John was created a baronet by King James in 1611. Their thirteen children included Oliver, John (d.1643), William (1617-1642/3), Edward (d.1645), Thomas, Francis, Walter (1622-1708), Henry, Anne, Barbara, Lucy, and Elizabeth. Anne died at thirty-seven according to the inscription on her tomb, "long worn down by the painful agonies of her last confinement and at last overcome." This same inscription erroneously gives her date of death as 1638. Her effigy holds a child. Portraits: portrait by unknown artist; St. John Polyptych in St. Mary's Church; effigy.
see ELIZABETH KNOLLYS
ELIZABETH LEIGHTON (d. January 12, 1633)
Elizabeth Leighton (sometimes spelled Layton) was the daughter of Sir Thomas Leighton of Feckenham, Worcestershire (1535-February 38, 1609/10) and Elizabeth (sometimes called Cecily) Knollys (June 15, 1549-c.1605). She was at court toward the end of the reign of Elizabeth Tudor. She married Sherrington Talbot of Salwarpe, Worchestershire (d.c.1642) and was the mother of Sherrington (c.1611-1677) and Sir Gilbert Talbot. The entry for her father in the Oxford DNB confuses Elizabeth with her sister, Anne (d.1628), who married John St. John, and further confuses the issue by stating that Walter St. John, grandson of Sir Thomas Leighton and son of Elizabeth by John St. John, drowned on the island of Herm in 1597. Anne and John St. John did have a son named Walter, but he lived well into the next century.
ELIZABETH LEIGHTON (1580-1647)
Elizabeth Leighton was the daughter of John Leighton of London. She fell in love with a gentleman, Thomas Lucas of St. John's, Colchester (c.1573-1625) when she was sixteen and he was twenty-four. In 1597, he fought a duel with Sir William Brooke, brother of Lord Cobham, killed Brooke, was outlawed, and had to flee abroad. In the summer of 1597, Elizabeth bore his son, Thomas (d.1649). The boy's father was pardoned by King James in July 1603 and returned to England. He married Elizabeth in August 1604. From that point on they led a conventional and prosperous life. She bore him at least six more children, including John (b. October 23, 1606), Mary, Elizabeth, Charles (b.1613), Anne, Catherine, and Margaret (b.1623).
see JOYCE SUTTON
KATHERINE LEIGHTON (d.1598)
Katherine Leighton was the daughter of John Leighton of Wattlesborough, Shropshire. From her first husband, Richard Wigmore (d. before July 14, 1553), Katherine inherited a share in the Muscovy Company, becoming one of only two women who invested in the venture in 1553 to find a northeast passage to the the riches of the far east. See Elizabeth Gale for the other. Wigmore also left Katherine a house in Mark Lane and two tenements. They had two children, Thomas and William. Katherine maintained her investment in the Muscovy Company jointly with her second husband, Edmund or Edward Lomner (Lamnour/Lumner) of Mannington, Norfolk and London (d. August 1558). With Lomner, she had two more sons, Edmund or Edward (1555-before 29 September 1588) and William (d. before September 1588). When Lomner died, Katherine inherited 2200 acres in Norfolk with the reversion to their eldest son. In 1558 she held her first court for Burgolions Manor in Reepham. Her third husband was John Dodge of Mannington, Norfolk, by whom she had John, Anne (1567-January 28, 1642), and Mary. Katherine is said to have frequently declared "that none of her children, but only her daughter the Lady Anne Heydon, wife of Sir Christopher Heydon, knight, should have any pennyworth of her goods, but only her said daughter.” Anne proved her mother's will on December 2, 1598.
see ANNE FRANK
see CHRYSOGNA BAKER
see MARGARET FIENNES
ELIZABETH LENTON (d.c.1562)
Elizabeth Lenton was probably the daughter of a John Lenton, but nothing further is known of her background. She married John Danet (Dannet/Dannatt/Dannett) in about 1553 and between 1554 and 1562 they were involved in a series of court cases against Richard Mytton in an attempt to claim a grant made to Elizabeth by Queen Mary of the possessions of Lord Thomas Grey, a traitor, at the time of his capture by Mytton. Mytton claimed the right to keep them for himself, since Grey had been captured (in February 1554) in Oswestry in the liberty of the earl of Arundel, whose officer Mytton was. The contested possessions included £200, two jeweled rings (one of gold with a ruby worth 53/4), a suit of mail, and at least one horse. No outcome of the case is recorded. Elizabeth and John had no children. It is unclear why Queen Mary granted her Grey's possessions.
see ALICE STUBBE
see ANNE VAUX
see GRISEL YELVERTON
see KATHERINE HYDE
ANNE LEVENS (d.1578+)
According to the essay "Alien Desires: Travellers and Sexuality in Early Modern England," by Duncan Salkeld, in Borders and Travellers in Early Modern Europe, edited by Thomas Betteridge and Salkeld’s Shakespeare among the Courtesans, Anne Levens probably boasted the highest earnings of any English prostitute in Elizabethan London. She arrived in the city around 1573. According to her testimony in hearings at Bridewell in December 1576, she seems to have specialized in foreigners. Her first customer was one Syprian Velotell. Later a Frenchman named Mandreant paid her 5s. She also serviced Alexander Palavasye (Alessandri Palavicino, the most powerful Italian importer in London in 1575-6, with a monopoly on importing alum) and Henry Cortell of the Steelyard (he gave her a gold chain and twenty nobles) and through these dealings she became wealthy enough to loan £10 to Mathias Vanbargen of the Steelyard. Anne moved from place to place to ply her trade, sometimes at the house of one Blount in St. Katherine's, a place that specialized in catering to Italians and charged prostitutes £1 8s/week for board and lodging, and sometimes at Mrs. Clarke's house or the house of Gilbert Earl or that of Black Luce. She named seventeen in all. She was released from Bridewell December 10, 1578 upon sureties and on the condition that she leave London within three days.
see DOROTHY SEYMOUR
see ELIZABETH BARLEY
see MARY PARKER
see CHRISTIAN MILDMAY
see DENISE BODLEY
see FRANCES SONDES
see KATHERINE DUDLEY
see MARGARET HOWARD
see MARY FITTON
see ANNE GOULDSMITH
ANNE LEWIS (d. before 1620)
On November 14, 1594, a woman named Anne Lewis was married to one Benjamin Jonson in the church of St. Magnus-the-Martyr in London. This appears to be Ben Jonson (1572-August 1637) the poet and playwright. A daughter, Mary, died in November 1593 at six months. They also appear to have had two sons, Benjamin (1596-1603) and another Benjamin (1608-1635). The family lived in Blackfriars, but Ben was rarely with them. In February 1603, John Manningham wrote in his diary that Jonson "married a wife who was a shrew yet honest." He was repeating gossip passed on to him by his friend Thomas Overbury, who also knew Jonson. This same characterization of Anne appears in the writings of William Drummond, whose "conversations" with Jonson late in 1618 were published in 1711. Drummond also reported that Jonson said he did not bed with his wife during the five years he was living with Lord Aubigny. It was during this period, on January 5 and 6, 1606, that both Jonson and his wife were summoned on a charge of recusancy to appear in London Consistory Court. They were instructed to return to court in late April to answer the charges. Apparently, they did attend services at St. Anne in Blackfriars but were accused of refusing to take communion. Although they were living apart, Jonson defended his wife and claimed to know that she did take communion.
see ANNE SACKVILLE
see JOYCE CURZON
see KATHERINE SCALES
see DOROTHY WROTH
ELEANOR LEWKNOR (1510-1590)
Eleanor Lewknor was the daughter of Edward Lewknor of Kingson Buci, Sussex (c.1465-December 22, 1522) and Sibella Ellingham. By 1540, she had married Sir William Wroughton of Broad Hinton, Wiltshire (1509/10-September 4, 1559) as his second wife and, according to his entry in the History of Parliament, was probably the Lady Wroughton in Anne of Cleves's household in that same year. No Lady Wroughton, however, appears on the lists for that household that I have seen. With Wroughton, Eleanor had four sons and three daughters, including Thomas (c.1540-June 4, 1597), George, William, James, Dorothy (c.1548-1616) , and Anne. Wroughton made his will on September 10, 1558 and named Eleanor his executor. He left her all his lands in Broad Hinton, Hinton Columbine, Medbourne, and Woodhill, Wiltshire for life. She was also to share his plate and household goods with their eldest son Thomas and to have £100 and the residue. Eleanor's second husband was Sir Giles Poole of Sapperton, Gloucestershire (c.1510-February 24, 1588/9).
JANE LEWKNOR (c.1503-1547)
Jane Lewknor was the daughter of Sir Roger Lewknor of Trotton, Dedisham and Bodiam, Sussex (1465-1543) and his first wife, Eleanor Touchet (daughter of John Touchet/Tuchet, 6th baron Audley). She was married three times. Her first husband was Christopher Pickering of Killington, Westmorland (d. September 7, 1516), by whom she had a daughter, Anne (1514-1582). Her second was Arthur Pole (c.1502-1535), son of Margaret Plantagenet, Countess of Salisbury. They had three children, Henry, Mary, and Margaret. The story goes that, after Arthur's death, his mother and brother (Lord Montagu) forced Jane to enter a nunnery so that they would not lose control of her fortune. As a novice, however, she was not bound to remain and after taking advice from her bishop, left the nunnery and married a third time in 1539. Her choice was Sir William Barentyne of Little Haseley, Oxfordshire (December 31, 1481-November 17, 1549), by whom she had two sons, Drew and Charles, and a daughter, Margaret. After the Act of the Six Articles was passed, however, she and Barentyne had to procure an Act of Parliament to confirm the legitimacy of their children. The Act of the Six Articles made it a felony for any person who had taken a vow of chastity to marry. The difficulty came from her family. Sir Henry Knyvett, second husband of Jane's daughter Anne, claimed the Barentyne marriage was invalid because of Jane's vows of chastity. On December 15, 1540, a commission declared the marriage invalid. Knyvett hoped his wife would thus inherit Sir Roger Lewknor's fortune. Lewknor himself had settled his property on Jane and her children by Barentyne. He had then, however, remarried and had three more daughters. An act of Parliament in 1543/4 confirmed a decision in Chancery that declared the Barentyne children legitimate and Jane's marriage to Sir William was restored on the grounds that Arthur Pole's brother, Lord Montagu, had forced Jane to take her vows. According to Jane, she was told by a priest that she could leave at her pleasure and several days after putting on a nun’s habit, she instead wore “a black frock and white hood, like a mourner.” The legal wrangling over her father’s estate continued after Jane's death. There was still debate over her sons’ legitimacy as late as 1563. A separate case, in the Star Chamber, pitted Jane against her daughter, Anne Pickering Knyvett. Anne claimed that her mother was afraid of Barentyne and that she had sent a message to Anne saying she was "very evill kepte" and surrounded by servants who kept "very Dishonest Rule." According to the summary found in the unpublished PhD dissertation Image and Reality: the Lives of Aristocratic Women in Early Tudor England by Jennifer Ann Rowley-Williams, the trouble began when Anne traveled to Bramley, near Shalford in Surrey, to visit her mother. She was accompanied by her son-in-law, Francis Kelway, and a friend, Lady Rogers. Finding the outer door locked, Anne ordered her servant to force it open. Then, according to Anne's account, she went in, saw her mother, asked for her blessing, and then asked her to send for one of her waiting women, Philippa Turke, so that Anne might rebuke her for the "many obprobriouse words" Philippa had used against her (Anne). Kelway found Philippa in hiding and brought her to the other women, whereupon Anne slapped Philippa. Jane's account of the incident differs considerably. She claimed that Anne neglected her. Concerning the visit to Bramley, Jane said that Anne and her party broke down seven doors in succession to get in and then chased Jane and her servants from room to room, terrorizing them. Rather than just slapping Philippa, Anne beat her severely while two servants held her down. Afterward, Jane claimed, Jane and her servants were in fear for their lives. No decision in the case is given. Magna Carta Ancestry states that Jane was still living in 1554.
ELIZABETH LEYBURNE (1536-September 4, 1567)
Elizabeth Leyburne was the daughter of James Leyburne of Cunswick, Westmorland and Helen Preston (d.1567+). She married first, in 1555, Thomas Dacre, 4th baron Dacre of the North (c.1526-July 25, 1566). Their children were Anne (March 1, 1557-April 13, 1630), George (1560-May 17, 1569), Mary (1563-1576), and Elizabeth (1565-1639). After her first husband’s death she was secretly married to Thomas Howard, 4th duke of Norfolk (March 10, 1538-x. June 2, 1572). The wedding took place on January 29, 1567 at her mother’s house in London. She died in childbed the following September and the child died also. In November 1567, Norfolk was granted wardship of her children and her three daughters were betrothed to his three sons. Portrait: possibly the work c.1560, attributed to Hans Eworth and called the Duchess of Norfolk.
ELLEN or HELEN LEYBURNE
see ELLEN or HELEN PRESTON
DOROTHY LIDCOTT (1530-1615)
Dorothy Lidcott was the daughter of Christoper Lidcott or Litcott or Swallowfield, Berkshire (d. December 6, 1554) and Katherine Cheyney (d.1567). At some point before 1560, she married Christopher Edmonds of Cressing Temple, Essex (1522-1596). By 1565, Mrs. Edmonds was a gentlewoman of the privy chamber to Queen Elizabeth and in that year the queen granted husband and wife the manor of Lewknor, Oxfordshire. In his will, written in 1595, she was named executor and residual legatee. It was proved in December 1596. According to the Quarterly Journal of the Berkshire Archaeological and Architectural Society, Vol. 2 (1891), they had one daughter, Frances, who married John D’Oyley of Chiselhampton. Portrait: on memorial brass to her father at Swallowfield.
see KATHERINE BARKER
DIONYSIA LILY (d. 1532+)
Dionysia Lily was one of the fifteen children of William Lily (1468-December 20,1522), Greek scholar, grammarian, and High Master of St. Paul’s School, and his wife, Agnes (d.August 11,1517). She married John Rightwise or Ritwise (d.1532), another grammarian, who succeeded his father-in-law in the mastership of the school. Rightwise is sometimes credited with writing the play “Tragedy of Dido,” which was acted at Greenwich by the boys of St. Paul’s School on November 10, 1527 for Cardinal Wolsey and the King. The suggestion has been made, however, that Dionysia was the true author. In 1531, Rightwise was removed from the High Mastership of St. Paul’s for neglect of duty. After his death, Dionysia wed James Jacob (d.1560), by whom she had a son, Polydore.
see MARCELLA LEAKE
JOAN LINCOLN (d.1524)
Joan, whose maiden name appears, from her will, to have been Lincoln, married Geoffrey Thurescrosse or Threscrosse (d.1522), a merchant who was sheriff of Kingston on Hull in 1517. They had one child, a son named Robert, who predeceased them. Geoffrey made his will on October 14, 1520 and it was proved November 25, 1522. Although this document, reprinted in Testamenta Eboracensia calls his wife "Jenet," her will later in that same volume, written on September 17, 1523 and proved January 22, 1523/4, makes it clear that she was Geoffrey's widow. After his death, Joan became a vowess, taking a vow of chastity. In her will, she left bedding to the Trinity poorhouse in Kingston on Hull, a coverlet and four cushions to her parish church for use at marriage and churching ceremonies, and money to St. James's church in Grimsby and to St. Leonard's nunnery in Grimsby. She also left bequests to numerous godchildren and to her brother's daughter, Margaret Lincoln, to her kinsman, William Lincoln the younger, and to every one of William's children dwelling in Shatow.
ISABEL LINDLEY (c.1499-1550/1)
Isabel Lindley was the daughter and heir of Thomas Lindley of Leathley in Lindley (near Otley), Yorkshire (d.1524). Her first husband was Brian Palmes of Ashwell (c.1496-October 19, 1528), a lawyer in the service of the earl of Northumberland. His will, dated October 2, 1528 and proved April 14, 1529, mentions his daughters Maud (c.1525-1575?) and Jane (d.1550+) and his sons Thomas (d.1550+) and Francis (c.1521-1567), all of whom were minors when he died. Isabel is named one of his executors. In 1529, she married Sir Thomas Johnson (d.c.1545), another Northumberland retainer. The earl granted them the manor of Leathley and an annuity of £24, plus an outright gift of £200. They were also promised the wardship of young Francis Palmes. Johnson was later appointed steward and master forester of Spofforth for the earl and in 1535 Northumberland granted him the manors of Walton Head and Arrow. He also acquired manors in Somerset. His will, made on September 26, 1542 and proved January 23, 1545/6, left Leathley, Walton Head and Arrow upon the Wolde to Isabel for her life, along with other bequests. He also left bequests to his sons Henry (d.1550+) and Arthur (d.1550+), his daughters Margaret (d.1550+) and Frances (d.1550+), his stepson Francis and his two stepdaughters, who were still unmarried. Once again, Isabel was named as one of the executors. Her own will, made on April 1, 1550 and proved April 15, 1551, indicates that all of her children were still living. She asked that her body be buried at Otley and willed £10 to each of her children. The two younger girls were still unmarried. She left the oldest boy, Francis Palmes, "one flower of gold sett with diamondes and a pare of beades of stones and goldsmyth warke, in consideracon of a crosse and other suche jewels as was my late husbandes, Brian Palmes, and his fador, decessed, and put awaye by my late husband Sir Thomas Johnson, deceased."
see ANNE HEIGHAM
ELIZABETH LISLE (d.1516+)
Elizabeth Lisle was one of Catherine of Aragon's chamberers. She received numerous gifts from the queen. In June 1511, she was given a black damask gown edged with crimson velvet and valued at £5 9s. 4d. On October 18, 1511, she received a gown of damask furred with miniver pure and edged with lettice. In August 1514, she was listed as one of the queen's gentlewomen and received a grant of land for life at the queen's request. And on December 29, 1516, she was given a black damask gown furred with mink and valued at £9 8s.
see HONOR GRENVILLE
see JOAN COURTENAY
see MARY KINGSTON
see ELIZABETH STOKE
see ISABEL SHIRLEY
ISABEL LISTER (d.1555+)
Isabel Lister or Lyster was the daughter of Richard Lister of Rowton, Shropshire (d.1505+) and Agnes Fitzherbert. She married, as his second wife, Thomas Bromley of Eyton-upon-Severn, Wroxeter, and Shrewsbury, Shropshire (d. May 15, 1555), later chief justice of the king’s bench. They had one child, Margaret (1521-August 10, 1598). Portrait: effigy on tomb in Wroxeter, although many accounts give her name as Mabel.
see MARGERY HORSMAN
see KATHERINE BARKER
see MAUD STONE
ELIZABETH LITTLETON (1546-June 4,1594)
Elizabeth Littleton was the daughter of Sir John Littleton of Franklen, Worcestershire (c.1523-February 15, 1590) and Bridget Pakington (b.1522). She married Sir Francis Willoughby of Wollaton, Nottinghamshire (1546/7-November 16, 1596) in late 1564. Her father paid a dowry of £1500 and the cost of her clothing, plus marriage charges and room and board at his house at Franklen with six persons to attend them for three years. Her jointure was to be one third of the estate, excluding profits from coal mines, but this was renegotiated several times during the marriage. In the 1570s the household at Wollaton consisted of 45-50 men but only a handful of women. In 1572, Elizabeth was attended by two gentlewomen, Elizabeth Mering and Marjory Garner. There were also two nurses for the children, Mary the fool, and two other women. Elizabeth bore twelve children in sixteen years but only six daughters lived to adulthood, Bridget (1566-July 16, 1629), Margaret (c.1570-August 17, 1597), Frances (1572-1665), Dorothy (1574-December 5, 1632), Abigail (1576-October 12, 1654), and Winifred (b.1578). She was almost constantly ill, and made frequent trips to London to consult doctors. Relations between husband and wife were antagonistic, and apparently made worse by the interference of servants. At one point Sir Francis confined Elizabeth to certain rooms in the house and took away all her rights in the care of their children. By December 1579, Elizabeth’s father was writing to her husband to arrange a separate allowance for her. In 1580, their son died at age six. According to the Oxford DNB, Elizabeth wrote to her husband, offering to reconcile in hope of a male heir, but this did not happen. In 1582, the queen formalized the separation and ordered Willoughby to pay £200 per annum for Elizabeth’s maintenance. Sir Francis’s complaints against his wife included “her disorderly life,” keeping company he disliked, and “reviling him to his face.” He also suspected her of adultery. This seems unlikely to have been true. Sir Francis, however, did father a son born out of wedlock in 1585. Letters exist from the next several years in which Elizabeth begs her husband to take her back, in spite of his treatment of her. According to the DNB, they were reconciled by the time she died. Biography: Alice T. Friedman’s House and Household in Elizabethan England: Wollaton Hall and the Willoughby Family. Portrait: painting attributed to George Gower, 1573.
MARY LITTLETON (1560-December 17, 1622)
Mary Littleton was the daughter of Sir Edward Littleton of Pillaton Hall, Staffordshire (1523-July 19, 1574) and Alice Cokayne or Cockaine (1535-1602). She married first Walter Vernon of Houndhill, Staffordshire (1551-January 11, 1592/3), by whom she had five sons and four daughters, including Thomas, Walter, Elizabeth, Grace, Mary, and Edward (December 14, 1584-1657). After seven years of widowhood, Mary wed her first husband's cousin, John Vernon of Sudbury, Derbyshire (d. July 8, 1600). They had no children. According to Charles J. Cox, ed, "The Rhymed Chronicle of John Harestaffe" (Journal of the Derbyshire Archaeological and Natural History Society, 1888, pp. 71-147), an account of events in rhyme written c.1615 and revised c.1645, Mary and her second husband were the targets of several plots engineered by Dorothy Townshend (née Heveningham), the widow of Henry Vernon, and her second husband, Henry Townshend. The dispute centered on ownership of lands known as The Farm of Haselbache (Hazelbadge),in the Peak District of Derbyshire and went on for a number of years, starting before John Vernon died, when a lawsuit was filed against him by Henry Townshend, Dorothy Townshend, and others. At one point there was an attack on the house. At another, Mary was offered £3000 and a life interest in the property if she would agree to a settlement. She refused because this would defraud the others involved in the lawsuit. A large section of the poem is subtitled "Of the Troubles of Mrs. Mary Vernon/Wydowe after her husband's decease, enseweth/in parte. " "Knowinge her debtes alreadie were not small,/For charges of her husband's funerall./And for to further this their bad intent,/They had alreadie barr'd her of the rent" She appealed to Sir Robert Cecil and went to court with her sister Margaret, Lady Repington (wife of Sir John Repington of Amington) but the troubles dragged on, as does the poem. It is also lacking in specific dates. Mary erected a tomb in memory of her second husband, John Vernon. Mary's own tomb was the work of her son Edward and contains a lengthy inscription stating that she took over her second husband's estates when they were left to her three surviving sons by her first marriage and "by her prudent endeavors" and "with great care and travel [travail?] and at her proper charges maintained their cause against their adversaries and brought the same to good effect to the great benefit of them all. Such was her charitie and vertuous mind she built a mannor house at Sudbury." She "contributed largely to the maintenance of this church" and "having lived a virtuous matron 22 years in her later widowhood maintaining good hospitality to the daily relief of the poor she willingly and in godly manner exchanged this life for a better." Portrait: effigy in All Saints, Sudbury, Derbyshire.
see MURIEL BROMLEY
see AGNES FLEMING
see ANNE VAUGHAN
DOROTHY LOCKE (d.1576+)
Dorothy Locke was the daughter of Sir William Locke of London (1480-August 24, 1550), mercer, and his second wife, Katherine Cook (d. October 14, 1537). She married first Otwell Hill of Rochdale, Lancashire and London (d.1543), a mercer and the bother of Richard Hill, also a mercer, who married Dorothy's youngest sister, Elizabeth. In his will, Otwell left gold rings to his parents-in-law. By a license dated January 13, 1545, Dorothy married John Cosworth of London and Cosworth, Cornwall (d. December 1575). He retired from his business as a London mercer when he was appointed receiver general of the Duchy of Cornwall by Queen Mary. By her second husband, Dorothy had seven sons, including Edward (d.c.1640), Thomas (d.c.1590), and Michael (d.1590+), and one daughter, five of whom were still living in 1575. In his will, dated August 1575 and proved March 5, 1576, Cosworth left Dorothy £1000, an annuity of £120, the profits of his tin works, and two furnished rooms in his house in Cosworth. She was also to be his executor if their son Thomas refused. If she remarried, she was to return £500 to the estate.
see ELIZABETH FARTHING
ELIZABETH LOCKE or
LOK (August 3, 1535-c.1581)
Elizabeth Locke or Lok was the youngest daughter of William Locke or Lok (1480-August 24, 1550) and Katherine Cook (d. October 14, 1537). Her first husband was Richard Hill (c.1527-1568), a mercer who lived in Milk Street, London. They had thirteen children, including Katherine, Elizabeth, Margaret, Rowland, Otwell, Mary (1562-November 1655), and Anne. According to Mary Prior in "Reviled and crucified marriages: the position of Tudor bishops' wives," in Women in English Society 1500-1800 (edited by Mary Prior), Elizabeth went into exile in Antwerp during the reign of Queen Mary with her sister Rose (see ROSE LOCKE). At the end of 1569 or the beginning of 1570, she took as her second husband Nicholas Bullingham, bishop of Lincoln (1511?-1576). He became bishop of Worcester in 1571. Bullingham already had two sons by his first wife, Margaret Sutton (d.1566) and had a third son, John, with Elizabeth. Some, if not all, of his stepchildren also lived with the family in Worcester from June 1571 until Bullingham died in May 1576.
see JOAN WILCOCK
see MARGERY PERIENT
see MARY LONG
ROSE LOCKE (December 26, 1526-November 21, 1613)
Rose Locke was the daughter of William Locke or Lok (1480-August 24, 1550) and Katherine Cook (d. October 14, 1537), Locke’s second wife. Rose was part of a large family. Her father was a well-to-do London mercer who also served as an occasional agent for the Crown in France and Flanders. Rose married first, on November 28, 1543, Anthony Hickman (d.1573), by whom she had eight children: Mary (b.1547), William (c.1549-September 25,1625), Henry (b.c.1550), Walter (c.1552-before February 1618), another Mary (b.1554), Anthony (c.1560-December 13, 1597), Eleazar (b.c.1562), and Matthew. During Mary Tudor’s reign, Rose’s husband and her brother Thomas were charged with heresy and imprisoned in the Fleet. When they were set free, Anthony left England for Antwerp. Rose, being pregnant, retired to Oxfordshire to give birth, after which she joined her husband abroad. She gave birth to another child in Antwerp. The Hickmans returned to England when Elizabeth Tudor became queen. After Anthony Hickman’s death, Rose married Simon Throckmorton of Brampton, Huntingdonshire (1526?-March 27, 1585) as his second wife. She had no children by him. In 1610, Rose wrote her autobiography from the year 1534 to Queen Mary’s death in 1558. This still exists in manuscript. Biography: Lady Rose Hickman: Her Life and Family by Sue Allen (companion volume to her 2009 novel about Rose Locke); Oxford DNB entry under “Throckmorton [née Lok; other married name Hickman], Rose.” Portrait: unknown artist or date.
see ANNE LUDDINGTON
see KATHERINE LEIGHTON
ALICE LONDON (1490-March 25, 1558/9)
Alice London was the daughter and coheir of William London. She married three times, first in 1510 to Edmund Rokewood of Euston, Suffolk (1485-August 1524). She was his second wife and the mother of his son Brice (d.1570+). Rokewood left her Euston Hall for life. In 1525, she married Sir Thomas Bedingfield of Oxborough, Norfolk (c.1479-1538), as his second wife. Her third husband was Thomas Borough or Burgh, 3rd baron Burgh (1483- February 28, 1549/50), chamberlain to Queen Anne Boleyn. She was his second wife also. All of his children were born to his first wife. Alice was buried in Lingfield, Surrey.
MARGARET LONDON (d. 1558/9)
Mrs. Margaret Baynham was a stapler who traded in wool, wine, and herring, shipping up to thirty large sacks of wool a year from Calais. She also kept a boarding house there and farmed 100 acres. She was a widow when she married Robert Baynham (d. 1536), who was mayor of Calais in 1535-6. They had a son, Bartholomew, and a daughter, Anne (1523-1559). Letters from Mrs. Baynham to business contacts in England are quoted in Barbara Winchester’s Tudor Family Portrait. In 1545, she was still described as a "fair widow." Mrs. Baynham had a sister, Elizabeth, who was married three times, first to John Bisley or Bysley, second to Henry Planckney (d. 1535), mayor of Calais in 1511, as his second wife, and third, on April 23, 1545, to Adam Copcott. Records show that Planckney's wife was the sister of Dr. John London of Hambledon, Buckinghamshire (c.1486-1543), so it is probable that London was the maiden name of both Elizabeth and Margaret. Margaret left a will, proved January 12, 1558/9.
ELIZABETH LONG (c.1562-June 12, 1611)
Elizabeth Long was the daughter of Henry Long of Shengay, Cambridgeshire (March 31, 1544-April 15, 1573) and Dorothy Clarke or Clerk (d.1618). On February 13, 1585, she married William Russell, 1st baron Russell of Thornhaugh (c.1558-August 9, 1613). Their son was Francis Russell, 4th earl of Bedford (October 19, 1587-May 9, 1651). Portrait: full length at Woburn.
see KATHERINE THYNNE
see MARGARET DONNINGTON
MARY LONG or LONGE (c.1518-October 30, 1578)
Mary Long was the daughter of Simon Long of the Isle of Wight and Alice Huglett. She married Thomas Locke or Lok (February 8, 1514-November 9,1556) and by him had six children: William, Rowland, Matthew (c.1553-1599), John, Mary, and Anne. Her sister-in-law, Rose Hickman, chided Mary for keeping her husband in England after he was arrested for heresy and thus contributing to his death. Sometime between 1556 and 1558, Mary wed Dr. George Owen, one of the royal physicians (c.1499-October 18, 1558). Mary Owen may have been the Mrs. Owen living at Cumnor Place at the time of Amy Robsart’s death. She was a widow by that time, and her stepson actually owned the property. Some accounts say that it was William Owen’s wife who was living there, although authorities disagree on that wife’s identity. The DNB gives her name as Anne Rawley. Other sources say that William married Ursula Fettiplace in 1558. At some point after 1558, Mary Long Locke Owen took a third husband, Sir William Allen (b. c.1515) who was Lord Mayor of London in 1572/3. Her son Matthew Locke married his daughter Margaret (1560-August 25, 1624) on July 15, 1577.
see MARGARET CLEEFE
see DOROTHY FITZHERBERT
MAUD LONGFORD (d. June 14, 1596)
Maud (Matilda/Magdalen) Longford was the daughter of Sir Ralph Longford of Longford, Derbyshire (d. September 23, 1544) and Dorothy FitzHerbert (d.1557). She married, as his second wife, Sir George Vernon (1508-August 31, 1565), thus becoming the stepmother of Margaret and Dorothy Vernon. The cruel stepmother of some versions of the story of Dorothy's elopement is questionable. Maud was only a few years older than her stepdaughter and Sir George was more than twice Maud's age. By Vernon’s will, dated August 18, 1565, Maud inherited a life interest in six Derbyshire manors and two in Staffordshire. She was also named one of his executors.According to her epitaph, Maud made a second match after Sir George's death "by her own choice/Pleasing herself, who others pleased before." Her choice was Sir Francis Hastings (d.1610), a younger son of the 2nd earl of Huntingdon. She married him in 1567, giving up her life interest in Haddon Hall to her stepdaughter. Portrait: her effigy is on the Vernon tomb in All Saints Church, Bakewell, Derbyshire, together with her husband and his first wife, Margaret Talboys.
see ANNE SAUNDERS
ALICE LONZAM (d.1539+)
Alice Lonzam came from a Suffolk family. Her first husband was Thomas Hayward of Ipswich, Suffolk (d. January 1534), a merchant. She was one of his executors and inherited the house they lived in, another house occupied by Ralph Goodwin, all movable goods, and all debts owed Hayward, provided his were paid first. She was, however, subsequently sued by the bailiffs of Ipswich, who claimed that of £60 they delivered to Hayward for the fee farm of the town for 1532-3, he paid only £20 to the Crown and did not pay out the other £40, which was supposed to go to Queen Catherine as the widow of Arthur, Prince of Wales. By March 1539, Alice had wed Richard Fulmerson of Ipswich and (later) Thetford, Norfolk (d. February 3, 1567). At the time of their marriage, he was understeward to Mary, duchess of Richmond and steward to Henry Howard, earl of Surrey. Alice had two children by her first husband, Thomas (d.1567+) and Elizabeth, who was left £26 13s. 4d. and two tenements in the parish of St. Nicholas by her father, and a daughter by her second husband.
see SARA AÑES
ELIZABETH LORD or LORDE (d.1551)
Elizabeth Lord was the daughter of Robert Lord of Kendal House, Driffield, East Yorkshire. She became a nun at Wilberfoss, near York. The prioress there was Margaret Easingwold, who held that post from December 6, 1479 until September 28, 1512, nearly thirty-two years. Elizabeth Lord was confirmed as the next prioress of Wilberfoss on October 18, 1518. The convent specialized in educating young gentlewomen and in 1537 even numbered Thomas Cromwell's granddaughter among its students. Possibly for this reason, the convent was not dissolved until August 20, 1539. At that time Elizabeth received a pension of £8 per year. Her nine nuns received considerably less. Elizabeth moved in with her sister, Mary Lord (c.1499-1557), by then married to George Gale (1497-1556), a goldsmith and who twice served as Lord Mayor of York. Although she did not attempt to continue in the religious life, she left money in her will, made on January 28, 1551 and proved on February 20, to her former sisters Agnes Barton, Alice Thornton, Joan Andrew, and Margery Browne—6s. 8d. each. The other bequests in her will indicate that she lived a life of considerable luxury. There were numerous gifts of money, most of the of four angels in gold, and various gilt cups and goblets. She left a cousin six silver spoons and another a silver pot and £20 towards her marriage. Yet another cousin got silver and coral beads, together with a gold ring with a blue sapphire in it. She disposed of her clothing as well, including gowns, kirtles, kerchiefs, caps, and a silk hat. She even left two shillings apiece to each of the Gale servants. In 1553, Elizabeth's sister and brother-in-law bought the site of Wilberfoss Priory, paying just over £615 for the property. Biography: Oxford DNB under "Lorde, Elizabeth."
ROBERDA LORGES (d.1612+)
Roberda, Roberde, or Robarda Lorges, sometimes called Gabrielle, was the third daughter of Gabriel de Lorges, comte de Montgommery (x.1574), a Huguenot general in the French wars of religion. An English expedition to France to aid the Huguenots in 1569 led to Sir Arthur Champernowne visiting the comte de Montgommery to arrange a marriage between his son Gawen and the comte’s daughter. Roberda married Sir Gawen Champernowne of Dartington, Devon (1555-1592) in April 1572 in Normandy and returned with him to England. Montgommery visited Exeter after the marriage but he refused to pay the marriage settlement, ignoring the demands of both the queen of England and the king of France. Roberda and Gawen had eleven children, including Arthur (1578-1650), and Ursula. In 1582, Roberda's husband took her to court in a case for "separation from bed and board," the closest anyone in England could come to divorce at that time. In the deposition given by Hugh Rist, who had been a servant at Dartington since 1566, Roberda was accused of adultery with one John Gatchell, her groom. This can be found in Bridget Cusack's Everyday English 1500-1700. Letters from Roberda’s family protesting Sir Gawen's cruelty also survive. Cusack points out, however, that although the case supposedly ended in a separation, five of the couple's eleven children were born after 1582, including Bridget (d.1631), who was born postumously. Roberda remarried, probably in August 1595. Her second husband was Thomas Horner of Cloford, Somerset (c.1547-1612), as his third wife. They had one son, Edward, according to The History of Parliament, which calls her "Lady Montgomery."
see ELIZABETH RASTELL
see MARY FITTON
ALICE LOVELL (d. December 23, 1518)
Alice Lovell was the daughter of William Lovell (d.1475) and Eleanora Morley. The Oxford DNB gives her birthdate as 1452 but other sources say 1465. She married first, in 1486, Sir William Parker (d.c.1504). Their children were Henry, later 8th baron Morley (1480/1-November 27, 1556), Alice, Jane, and William. Her second husband, married before January 1506, was Sir Edward Howard (1477-April 25, 1513). They had no children, although Sir Edward did have two illegitimate sons, one of whom he left in the care of the king in his will. The other was to go to his friend, Charles Brandon. The manor of Morley in Norfolk already belonged to Alice for life but, in his will, Howard specified that it should go to her son, Henry, after her death. Alice, together with Charles Brandon, was named executor of this will, which was made in 1512, the same year Howard was named Lord Admiral, and proved on July 18, 1513. He perished during the war with France. Alice's will left £3 "to the makyng of a pyx for the Sacrament of the Parish Church of Halyngbury Morley."
see ANNE ASHBY
see ELEANOR RADCLIFFE; ELEANOR ROOS
ELIZABETH LOVELL (c.1477-c.1522)
Elizabeth Lovell was the daughter of Henry Lovell of Lorting and Hartney, Sussex (c.1461-April 20, 1501) and Constance Hussey (1459-c.1503). After her father's death, she and her younger sister Agnes became the wards of Sir Reginald Bray (d.1503), who was married to her mother's sister. Meanwhile, her mother married Sir Roger Lewknor as his first wife. Bray's will left Chelsea Manor to his wife with the reversion to two of his nephews, providing they married Elizabeth and Agnes. Edward Bray (d. December 1, 1558) did marry Elizabeth, shortly after 1503, but they were divorced (or more probably, the marriage was annulled) by February 1508, when Lady Bray's estate was settled. Elizabeth and Agnes are listed as the wards of Edmund Dudley in 1505 and of Andrew Windsor (later Lord Windsor) in 1507. In 1508/9, Elizabeth appears in the records as the wife of Anthony Windsor (c.1475-1549), younger brother of Andrew. Bray remarried before 1518. The date of Elizabeth's death is unknown, but her second husband's second wife's first husband died in 1522. She did not leave any children.
see ELIZABETH PARIS
see JANE ROPER
see MARY BRYDGES
URSULA LOVELL (1493-1554+)
Ursula Lovell was the daughter of Sir Robert Lovell (1450-1522) and Ela Conyers and one of the nieces of the wealthy, childless Sir Thomas Lovell of East Harling, Norfolk and Elsing by Enfield, Middlesex (d. May 25, 1524). She married Sir William Hussey of Beauvale, Nottinghamshire (c.1492-January 19, 1555/6). The marriage contract was made in 1503 for Ursula or a sister. The settlemen was not made until 1529. Ursula had two daughters, Margaret (1515-1579) and Anne, although the entry in the History of Parliament for Ursula's son-in-law, Richard Disney (d.1578) gives his wife's name as "Neile, daughter of Sir William Hussey of Beauvale" and states that they married by 1537. Hussey left no extant will, but in 1554 he arranged for trustees to hold his propertly at Beauvale to the use of his wife and heirs.
see ANNE COPE
ELIZABETH LOVETT (1516-August 1577)
Elizabeth Lovett was the daughter of Sir Thomas Lovett of Astwell, Northamptonshire (1493-July 19,1523) and Anne Danvers (1494-July 11,1523). In 1537, she married Sir Anthony Cave of Chicheley, Buckinghamshire (1516-September 9, 1558), by whom she had four daughters: Martha (b. February 24,1546), Anne (February 24,1545-December 31,1594), Judith (b. November 15, 1542) and Mary (November 1, 1556-October 16,1593). In 1559, Elizabeth married her second husband, John Newdigate of Harefield, Middlesex (1519-1565). His son John (1541-1592) later married her daughter Martha. On July 7, 1566, Elizabeth married a third time, to Richard Weston of Roxwell, Essex (1510-July 6,1572), a judge, as his third wife. Her daughter Mary married his son Jerome (c.1550-December 31,1603). The story goes that, three times a widow, Elizabeth Lovett erected a monument at Chicheley not to one of her husbands but to the man who had loved her in her youth.
JOANNA LOWDHAM (c.1404-June 20, 1501)
Joanna Lowdham was the only daughter of John Lowdham of Lowdham, Suffolk, and Frenze, Norfolk and Joan Kelvedon. From her mother, she inherited "the manor of Kelvedon Hall in Brakested," called elsewhere Easterford Manor, Kelvedon, Essex. She married first Thomas Heveningham, who died before 1422. Her second husband was Ralph Blennerhassett of Blennerhassett, Cumberland (sometimes spelled Bleverhaysset), who died November 17, 1475. They had one son, John Blennerhassett (1423-November 27, 1510). What is remarkable about this? The span of Joanna's life. She was ninety-seven when she died. She began life in the reign of Henry IV and lived to see Henry VII win the throne from Richard III.
see JANE UPTON
see PENELOPE PERROTT
ELIZABETH LOWYS (c.1524-x. March 1565) (maiden name
A law against witchcraft, the first in civil law in England for some time, was passed in 1563. One of the first to be prosecuted under it was Elizabeth Lowys of Great Waltham, Essex, the wife of John Lowys. By 1564, she had five daughters: Anne (b.c.1549), Alice, Phyllis, Joan, and Olive. Elizabeth appeared in ecclesiastical court in June 1564 and before the Colchester Assizes on July 21, 1564. She was charged with three counts of bewitching to death, but other crimes were laid at her door that did not appear in the indictment, everything from laming her husband to bewitching animals. By one report, her mother was a witch, but no name had survived for her. Elizabeth was sentenced to death but when she was found to be pregnant she was kept in jail rather than executed at once. In the spring of 1565, examined again and found to no longer be pregnant, she was hanged immediately following the end of court. Biographies: Alan R. Young, "Elizabeth Lowys: Witch or Social Victim, 1565," History Today, December 1972, pp. 879-85; chapters in Joyce Gibson, Hanged for Witchcraft: Elizabeth Lowys and her Successors. Portrait: woodcut from account of trial.
see ELIZABETH WITHYPOLL
ANNA LUCAS (d. August 11, 1629)
Anna Lucas was the daughter of Thomas Lucas of St. John's Abbey, Colchester (c.1531-August 24,1611) and Mary Fermor (d.1613). She is said in some records to have been a maid of honor to Queen Elizabeth and to have made a clandestine marriage that angered the queen, but since the letters cited are dated 1593, it seems more logical to think they refer to the marriage in 1591 between Anna's sister-in-law, maid of honor Elizabeth Throckmorton, and Sir Walter Raleigh. Anna Lucas married Sir Arthur Throckmorton (1557-July 1626) on July 4, 1585. They had met in 1583, but Arthur was attracted to other ladies (Frances Hastings, then Mary Darcy) and it was not until he was released from the Marshalsea in June 1585 that he started to court Anna. Their children were Mary (d. April 25, 1658), Anna (August 18, 1594-January 23, 1620), Elizabeth (c.1592-February 1625), and Catherine (c.1594-July 1, 1632) and two others who died young. Biography: Sir Arthur Throckmorton's diaries are still extant. Portraits: two pregnancy portraits dated 1587 and 1588, now lost.
ANNE LUCAS (c.1541-April 13, 1604)
Anne Lucas was probably the daughter of Sir John Lucas of Little Saxham and Bury St. Edmunds (c.1491-September 25, 1556) and Elizabeth Christmasse, although the History of Parliament says her father was Thomas Lucas of Little Saxham and Horsecroft, Horningsheath, Suffolk. By 1570, she married Richard Jocelyn/Josselyn of Hyde Hall, Sawbridgeworth, Hertfordshire and High Roding, Essex (c.1526-September 1575) as his second wife. Their children were Richard (1572-1625), another son, Joan or Jane and Mary (twins), and Winifred. Her second husband was Henry Heigham, who moved into Hyde Hall after the marriage. They had a daughter, Martha, who was still a baby when Queen Elizabeth stayed overnight at Hyde Hall on September 16-17, 1578. It is unknown if the family was in residence or moved out to accommodate the queen.
see ELIZABETH LEIGHTON
see MARY ROYDON
FRANCES LUCE (d.1575)
Frances Luce was the daughter of Robert Luce or Lucy (c.1511-c.1557), a London leatherseller, and his wife Katherine (d.1558). Her first husband, to whom she was married c.1553, was Edmund Wayte of Bermondsey (d. 1557), another leatherseller, by whom she had two sons, an unnamed boy (c.1554-c.1559) and William (c.1555-1603). On June 7, 1558, she married William Gardiner of Bermondsey, Surrey (1531-November 26, 1597), by whom she had Christopher (1563-1596), Thomas (1564-1632), Katherine, Anne, Richard (1569-1591), and William (1572-1622). After her mother died, Frances took over the administration of her father's large estate. Gardiner made his fortune through money lending and fraud and among those he defrauded were his stepson, William Wayte, and his wife's siblings. In 1584, well after Frances's death, Gardiner sued her brother-in-law, John Bullard, for slander for saying that Frances had sworn to a lie at her husband's instigation. A Bermondsey grocer, Richard Ryther, later deposed that he’d heard by report that Gardiner had "by shameful falsehood" defrauded the Luce heirs "of great sums of money" and used "one subtle device or another" to harass them. Frances, however, did not witness the worst of this. She was buried January 1, 1575/6 in Bermondsey.
see CONSTANCE KINGSMILL
see ELIZABETH EMPSON
see JOYCE ACTON
ANNE LUDDINGTON (1528-1579)
Anne Luddington was the daughter Henry Luddington (d.1531), grocer of London and gentleman of Gainsborough, Yorkshire, and Joan Kirkeby (d. August 1576). Her mother’s second husabnd was Sir William Laxton (d.1556), another grocer and Lord Mayor of London in 1544. Anne married twice. Her first husband was another grocer, William Lane. Her second was Sir Thomas Lodge (1509/10-February 1585), Lord Mayor of London in 1562/3, as his third wife. Anne’s mother, upon her second husband’s death, became one of the wealthiest inhabitants of London. As Lady Laxton, Jane Kirkeby purchased substantial amounts of real estate. Her children, Nicholas, Joan, and Anne, were also provided for in their stepfather’s will. Anne’s children by Sir Thomas Lodge were William, Thomas (1558-1625), Nicholas, Henry, Benedict, and Joanna. Edward White dedicated the Mirror of Modestie (1579) to Anne, Lady Lodge after her death. Her son Thomas wrote her elegy.
see ELIZABETH DUDLEY
see MARGARET MANNING
MAUDE LUFFKYN (d.1540+)
Maude Luffkyn or Lovekyn is the name that has come down in one branch of the Lovekin family as an ancestor who attended Queen Catherine Howard on the scaffold. I can find no proof of this, but a Mistress Luffkyn or Lufkyn is listed as a chamberer in that household and in one account Mistress Luffkyn is the servant who caught sight of Thomas Culpeper trying to sneak into the queen's bedchamber, forcing him to hide until the coast was clear. Unfortunately, there is nothing to indicate a first name or whether Mistress Luffkyn was married or single. A chamberer, unlike a maid of honor, could be either. She was undoubtedly related to the two George Luffkyns in the king's service. One, the father, was the king's tailor from 1470 until his death in 1504. He had been born in Paris but received letters of denization in 1475. His eldest son, the second George, was employed in the king's stable and works by 1504. It is possible that Maude was his daughter or daughter-in-law.
see ANNE LAUNCELYN
JEANNE LULLIER (d.1584+)
Jeanne Lullier was the daughter of Nicholas, seigneur de Raucourt and de Guyotte d'Orchamps and the wife of Simon Renard (c.1513-August 8, 1573), Imperial Ambassador to England during the reign of Mary Tudor. There was a delay in arranging her safe conduct for the trip to England and as a result the ship in which she crossed the English Channel was nearly captured by French warships. Jeanne was in England for a year, from October 1553 to October 1554. They had seven children: Françoise (b.1544), Jeanne (b.1545), Eleanor (b.1547), Marie (b.1549), Frederic (b.1552), Philippe (b.1554), and Charles (b.1556/60). Portrait: by Antonio Mor, 1557.
see ELIZABETH DARCY
see JANE FITZALAN
see JANE YELVERTON
URSULA LUSON (d. 1597)
Ursula Luson was the daughter of Walter Luson (d. before 1574) and Elizabeth Woodroff (d. 1597+). In about 1574, her mother married Richard Kingsmill of Highclere, Hampshire (d.1600), surveyor of the court of wards and liveries. On June 13, 1586, at St. Peter's, Cornill, Ursula married, as his second wife, Humphrey Smith of St. Peter the Poor, London (c.1531-October 1, 1589). Their son Walter was baptized on April 28, 1588. At the time Ursula made her will, she was living in the parish of St. Christopher in London. This document, proved September 21, 1597, mentions her stepfather, her mother, and her sister, Dionis Hixte.
ELIZABETH LUTTON (c.1498-before February 1553)
Elizabeth Lutton was the daughter of Stephen Lutton (d.c.1526) of Knapton. At fourteen, she was veiled as a Benedictine nun at Yedlingham Priory in the East Riding of Yorkshire. The prioress at that time was Elizabeth White (d.c.1526). She was succeeded by Agnes Brayerdricke or Braydericke. Upon learning that Elizabeth Lutton was pregnant, the new prioress sent her to live in a house outside the cloister until the baby was born. The fate of the child is unknown, as is its father’s name, but Elizabeth was permitted to return to the convent. Nearly five years passed without incident. Then, in an attempt to nullify the will of Elizabeth’s grandfather, which left everything to his younger son, Elizabeth’s uncle, and take control of his considerable landholdings, Elizabeth was either abducted or ran away from the convent and married a man named Thomas Scaseby. She claimed she was not a nun, but a judicial inquiry held at Yedlingham on April 30, 1532 found against her. The marriage was annulled and Elizabeth once again returned to Yedlingham as a nun. Her story is included in Runaway Religious in Medieval England c.1240-1540 by F. Donald Logan. When the house was dissolved in August 1539, “Elizabeth Sutton” received a pension of 26s. 8d. Biography: Oxford DNB entry under “Lutton, Elizabeth.”
CATHERINE LUTTRELL (1537-1608)
Catherine Luttrell was the daughter of Sir John Luttrell of Dunster Castle, Somerset (1519-July 10, 1551) and Mary Griffith (1519-March 31, 1588), daughter of Sir Griffith Rhys. At the time of Luttrell's death of the sweating sickness, he had been attempting to divorce his wife on grounds of adultery, but others apparently did not believe the charges. She received a legacy in his mother's will and was buried with the Luttrells in East Quantockshead. She did, however, remarry, taking James Godolphin of Gwinear, Cornwall as her second husband in 1552. Catherine and her sisters, Dorothy and Mary, were wards of the Crown and the earl of Arundell became Catherine's guardian. Through his influence, she became a member of Queen Mary's Privy Chamber. Her grandmother, Catherine St. John, Lady Edgecumbe, left Catherine a chain of gold with a flower set with two diamonds and a ruby in December 1553. In July 1558, she married Sir Thomas Copley of Gatton, Surrey (1532-September 25, 1584), who later claimed to have chosen her for her beauty. In doing so, he alienated Lord William Howard, who wanted him to marry one of his daughters. The wedding took place at Nonsuch Palace, which at that time belonged to the earl of Arundel. In November 1558, Mistress Copley attended Queen Mary's funeral as a gentlewoman of the Privy Chamber. Queen Elizabeth was godmother to her eldest son, Henry (1560/1561-before 1576) In 1563, however, Sir Thomas refused to conform in religion. He was fined and imprisoned in 1568. In 1570, he went abroad without license, taking his family with him. The Crown promptly seized his property. Although Catherine was allowed to return to England for a visit, her husband remained in exile until his death in Antwerp. They seem to have lived comfortably abroad, where he received a knighthood from the French king, Henri III, and a title from the king of Spain and was a pensioner of the governor of the Netherlands. His will, written September 25, 1576, named his "entirely beloved wife" as executrix. She proved the will in England, where she was allowed to claim her dower lands. Her eldest surviving son, William (1565-1643) remained abroad. Her other children were Anthony (1567-1607) and John (1577-1662), the latter born in Leuven, Mary, Eleanor, Margaret (d.1591+), and Elizabeth. Part of her jointure included the right to nominate the two MPs for Gatton. In regard to this, she was described as simple, unfit to meddle in politics, and bigoted. On September 27, 1586, Sir Francis Walsingham wrote to the sheriff of Surrey on behalf of the Privy Council, ordering him to usurp this right and return two men he named. His reason was that she was "known to be evil affected." Late in the reign of Elizabeth, Catherine was imprisoned at least once for recusancy and convicted twice for harboring priests. An online genealogy states she was buried at Horsham, Sussex on January 7, 1608. Portrait: detail of "A Religious Allegory with Sir Thomas Copley (d.1584) and family" (1625), Dunster Castle, Somerset.
see JOAN STUKELEY
MARGARET LUTTRELL (c.1538-1580+)
Margaret Luttrell was the daughter of Sir Andrew Luttrell of Dunster Castle and East Quantock, Somerset (c.1486-May 4, 1538) and Margaret Wyndham (d.1580). In about 1555, she married Piers or Peter Edgecumbe of Mount Edgecumbe and Cothele, Cornwall (c.1536-January 4, 1607/8). Their children were Elizabeth, Catherine, Margaret (1560-1648), Richard (c.1563-March 23, 1639), Piers (c.1565-1638), Edward (d.1630), John, Andrew (d.1640), and Anne. She and her husband were executors of her mother's will. Portrait: unknown artist and date. (NOTE: she looks a little young to me, given the date for this size ruff, making me wonder if this is actually Margaret Edgecumbe, her daughter.)
see MARGARET HADLEY; MARGARET WYNDHAM
see MARY GRIFFITH
see WELTHIAN YARDE
see FRANCES BRAY
JANE LYFIELD (1549-January 23, 1611)
Jane Lyfield was the only child of Thomas Lyfield of Stoke d’Abernon, Surrey (d. January 26, 1596) and Frances Bray (d. May 27, 1592). Her mother was one of the daughters of Edmund, Lord Bray and co-heiress in 1557 to her brother John, 2nd Lord Bray. Before 1575, Jane married Sir Thomas Vincent of Barnack, Northamptonshire (1543/4-December 14, 1613) and became the mother of Francis, Bray, and Jane. The family was settled in Surrey by 1582 and entertained the queen at Stoke d’Abernon in 1601. Vincent’s will was written September 23, 1613 and proved March 14, 1614 and left bequests to Jane and to their son Francis. Jane was buried at Stoke D’Abernon, Surrey. Portrait: 1602 (inscribed "Jane Lyfield co-heiress of Lord Bray/wife of Sir Tho' Vincent, Knight"); effigy at Stoke d’Abernon.
MARGARET LYGON (d.1617)
Margaret Lygon was the daughter of William Lygon or Ligon of Madresfield, Redgrove, and Lower Mitton, Worcestershire and Arle Court, Elmstone, Kemerton, and Staverton, Gloucestershire (d. September 29, 1567) and Eleanor Dennis (d.1579+). Her first husband was Sir Thomas Russell of Strensham and Witley, Worcestershire (c.1520-April 9, 1574) , as his second wife. They had one son, Thomas (d.1633/4). In his will, dated April 3, 1574 and proved February 9, 1575, Margaret, as executrix, was to administer a legacy for the marriage of twenty poor maidens, pay £550 on the marriage of her stepson, John Russell, to Elizabeth Sheldon, and provide employment for one Old Humphrey for the rest of his life. Margaret married second Sir Henry Berkeley of Bruton (d.1601). They had three sons and a daughter: Maurice (c.1577-May 1, 1617), Henry (d.1657), Edward (d. before February 3, 1654), and Margaret (d.1617+). Margaret left a will, dated February 9, 1617 and proved June 28, 1617, in which she left her son Sir Maurice Berkeley the wedding ring his father had given her, along with household stuff at Bruton and Norwood Park. Among other bequests, she left her daughter, by then married to Lewis Pollard, £100 worth of plate, and their daughter, Elizabeth Pollard, £200 of current English money along with her green mockado chest and everything inside it at the time of her death. The entire will can be found a www.oxford-shakespeare.com.
MARY LYGON (1597-1647+)
Mary Lygon was the daughter of Sir William Lygon of Madresfield, Worcestershire (1567-December 8, 1608) and Elizabeth Harwell. On June 13, 1622, she married Henry Bromley of Upton-on-Severn, Worcestershire (1596-1647). They were married for twenty-five years and had six children, John, Thomas, Elizabeth, Anna, Henry, and Mary, some of whom died young. They lived at Ham Court. Bromley was High Sheriff of Worcestershire in 1627. Portrait: wedding portrait, 1623.
DOROTHY LYTCOTT (c.1545-1603+)
Dorothy Lytcott (Litcott/Lidcott) was the daughter of Christopher Lytcott (c.1519-December 6, 1554) and Catherine Cheney. She married Sir Christopher Edmondes of Lewknor, Oxfordshire. She was at the court of Elizabeth from 1567-1603 and had considerable influence there. In 1585, she was granted the lease to Molesley, Surrey for twenty-one years for her service as a gentlewoman of the Privy Chamber. In January 1595/6, Lady Edmondes was asked to obtain a pardon from a man named Booth, who had been sued by Lady Gresham over a forgery, jailed, fined, and sentenced to lose his ears. She negotiated a price and, when she was successful, collected a fee of £200, half at once and the rest due within six months. Sir Christopher and Dorothy entertained Queen Elizabeth at Molesley in August 1600. Dorothy does not appear to have had any children. Her heir was Sir John Lytcott (b.1575), her nephew.
see ELIZABETH CONINGSBY
see ELIZABETH MUNDEN
text ©2008-14 Kathy Lynn Emerson (all rights reserved)