Kathy Lynn Emerson
to update and correct
her very out-of-date
Wives and Daughters: The Women of Sixteenth-Century England (1984)
NOTE: this document exists only in electronic format
and is ©2008-14 Kathy Lynn Emerson (all rights reserved)
see PENELOPE PERROTT
see ELIZABETH NEVILLE
AGNES NEEDHAM (c.1546-January 1623)
Agnes Needham was the daughter of Thomas Needham of Cranage, Cheshire and Shenton, Shropshire (c.1505-1570? or 1510-1556). Her mother was either Anne Talbot or Agnes Hope. She married Sir Richard Bulkeley, constable of Beaumaris Castle (c.1513-September 7, 1572) as his second wife. The History of Parliament gives them four sons and two daughters and assigns six sons and three daughters to Sir Richard's first wife. Others sources list Elizabeth, Mary, Arthur, Tristam, George, Edward, Lancelot, Grissel, Agnes, and Phoebe as Agnes's children. Early in 1572, Sir Richard was taken ill. When he died later that year, his oldest son, another Richard (c.1533-1621) took charge of the household. Apparently Richard and Agnes had long been at odds as had her children and Richard and his siblings. Things came to a head over a rivalry for the hand in marriage of a wealthy local heiress, Jane Coeden. Richard instructed his younger brother John to propose to Jane, but at Agnes’s urging, Richard’s stepbrother, Arthur, had already proposed and been accepted. It was at this point that Richard accused his stepmother of poisoning her husband. Poison was found in a chest in her room, under a pair of velvet slippers. Agnes was also accused of committing adultery with William Kenrick, “a young gallant” who "did use to walk under the said Agnes her window in the night time, play upon an instrument and make love to her when Sir Richard was away from home in the Parliament" in 1571. A Beaumaris jury acquitted her of murder, although litigation dragged on for three full years before the charges were dropped. Agnes was found guilty of adultery in the Court of Arches. Arthur Bulkeley married Jane Coeden. Agnes married Lawrence Cranage, Esquire, as his second wife. Cranage had a son by his first wife who was a London grocer and a daughter, Dorothy, by Agnes. Cranage predeceased his second wife. Agnes’s will was made on March 12, 1622 and proved March 14, 1623 in Canterbury. She was buried, at her request, in Holmes Chapel in Chester on January 24, 1623.
see DOROTHY SMITH
see JANE HALL
see BRIDGET OVER
see ELIZABETH BABTHORPE
see ÉTIENNETTE DE LA BAUME
Adeline Neville was the daughter of Henry Neville, 5th earl of Westmoreland (1525-February 10, 1564) and Anne Manners (1527-1549). She was left a thousand marks in her father’s will but never married. Adeline's brother, the 6th earl, was one of the "Northern Earls" who rebelled against the Crown in 1569. The Westmorland title was forfeit in 1571 and he ended his life in exile in 1601. Burke's Landed Gentry mentions Adeline as standing godmother to Anthony Trotter in 1576 and says that she "sheltered" with the Trotter family of Helmenden, to whom he says she was related by marriage, until her death. This is contradicted by Adeline's will, made on March 22, 1612/13, when she was living in the parish of St. Martin-in-the-Fields, London. In this will, she asked to be interred in the church at Stanthorpe, Durham and left £4 to her waiting gentlewoman, Elizabeth Tasbrough. The will was proved at London on October 7, 1613. It is as a result of the death of one of Adeline’s sisters in 1591, however, that Adeline is remembered today. Catherine Neville, Lady Constable, made Adeline her executor and left £40 in her will to be used to build a memorial to herself, their two grandmothers, and an aunt in St. Leonard’s, Shoreditch. Adeline duly oversaw the creation of a monument showing four women kneeling around a prayer desk. Represented were Catherine Stafford, Countess of Westmorland, Eleanor Paston, Countess of Rutland, Margaret Neville, Countess of Rutland, and Catherine Neville, Lady Constable. All except Lady Constable had died in the 1550s. Two of Adeline's uncles are also shown in effigy on the monument. In 1735, the church was torn down and replaced by a new building but the tomb was preserved in the British Museum.
Anne Neville was the daughter of Thomas Neville of Cotterstock and Cottingham, Northamptonshire and Alice Wauton. She married, sometime after the death of his first wife in 1526 but not before 1533, Sir John St. John of Bletsoe, Bedfordshire (c.1498-December 19, 1558). Before their marriage, however, she bore Sir John five illegitimate children, one son (Charles) and four daughters, including Jane, Mary, and Cressett (d.1571). Sir John left a will written April 6, 1558 and proved February 27, 1559, naming Anne one of his executors. She was to have half of his plate.
see ANNE KILLIGREW; ANNE MANNERS
see CATHERINE STAFFORD
CATHERINE NEVILLE (1541-March 27, 1591)
Catherine Neville was the daughter of Henry Neville, 5th earl of Westmorland (1525-February 10,1564) and Anne Manners (1527-June 27,1549+). She married Sir John Constable of Holderness (June 10, 1527-May 25, 1579) as his second wife and had by him one son, John (b.c.1564). She was the Lady Constable who was a recusant and who spent time in prison at Sheriff Hutton in 1582-84. She left instructions that if she died in the north she should be buried with her husband at Halsham, Yorkshire and if she died in the south, with her family in Shoreditch. She left £40 for a memorial to herself, her two grandmothers (Catherine Stafford and Eleanor Paston) and an aunt (Margaret Neville), which was duly constructed in St. Leonard's, Shoreditch, by her sister, Adeline. Catherine wrote her will on August 4, 1590 and it was proved on July 28, 1491 at York. Portrait: by Robert Peake, 1590; a second version of this portrait was incorrectly called Bess of Hardwick. Her age is also incorrectly inscribed, since it is given as 60 in 1590.
(1546-October 28, 1596)
Catherine Neville was the daughter of John Neville, 4th baron Latimer (c.1520-April 22, 1577) and Lucy Somerset (d. February 23, 1583). On January 28, 1562, she married Henry Percy, later 8th earl of Northumberland (1532-June 20, 1585). Charlotte Merton, in The Women who served Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth, calls her Anne Neville and gives the date of her wedding as June 1558. Merton suggests that Queen Mary gave the new countess of Northumberland twenty-three ruby buttons and two sapphires as a wedding present. It was Anne Somerset who married on June 12, 1558, to the 7th earl. Catherine was the mother of Henry, 9th earl (April 27, 1564-November 5, 1632), Thomas, Sir Richard (d.1648), Sir Charles (d.1628), Sir Jocelyn (d.1631), William (1575-1648), Sir Alan (d.1611), George (1580-1632), Eleanor, and Lucy. Northumberland was twice sent to the Tower of London, in 1572 and again in 1584. he died there from a shot from his own pistol. Catherine's second husband was Sir Francis Fitton of Binfield, Berkshire (d.1608). Catherine did not get along with her eldest son. She was buried in Westminster Abbey.
3,1415-May 31, 1495)
Cecily Neville was the eighteenth child of Ralph Neville, 1st earl of Westmorland (c.1364-1425). Her mother was his second wife, Joan Beaufort (d.1440). By October 1429, she had married Richard, duke of York (1411-x. December 30, 1460), who had been her father's ward. They had been betrothed before she reached her tenth year. They had at least twelve children between 1439 and 1452, seven of whom survived to adulthood: Anne (1439-January 1476), Edward (1442-1483), Edmund (x.1460), Elizabeth (1444-1503/4), Margaret (May 3, 1446-November 22, 1503), George (d.1478), and Richard (1452-1485). Cecily went with her husband to France, where he was governor, and to Ireland, where he was lieutenant. He was attainted in 1459 and executed the following year as part of the conflict between the houses of Lancaster and York. Cecily's eldest surviving son, Edward, became King Edward IV. She is said to have disapproved of his marriage to Elizabeth Woodville, his lowborn queen. It was during Edward's reign, in 1470, that Cecily's younger son, George, duke of Clarence, started the rumor that Cecily had been unfaithful to her husband and that Edward was illegitimate. This story resurfaced after Edward's death, when Cecily's youngest son, Richard of Gloucester, deposed her grandson, Edward V, and had himself crowned Richard III. What Cecily thought of this is unknown, but Richard launched his campaign for the throne from her London house. In spite of the frequent upheavals during the conflict between the houses of Lancaster and York, Cecily never suffered financially. In 1460, she was briefly placed in the custody of her sister, the duchess of Buckingham, but otherwise enjoyed both her freedom and the income from extensive property. Henry VII, who defeated Richard, married Cecily's granddaughter, Elizabeth of York, and thus was inclined to support her. In 1486, he gave her an annuity and renewed her license to export wool. Biography: entry in the Oxford DNB under "Cecily [Cicely; née Cecily Neville], duchess of York."
DOROTHY NEVILLE (d. September 22, 1559)
Dorothy Neville was the second youngest daughter of George Neville, 3rd Baron Bergavenny (c.1469-June 13, 1535/6) by his third wife, Mary Stafford (c.1495-before 1530). The house her family preferred to live in, called Comfort, was located at Birlin, Kent, six miles from Cobham Hall. She was betrothed to Lord Cobham's son, William Brooke (November 1, 1527-March 6, 1597), later 10th baron Cobham, on June 4, 1535 and they were married in 1545. She had a dowry of £400. At the end of 1545, she went to Calais with her husband but she was sent back to England in 1546 while William went on to Boulogne. According to David McKeen's A Memory of Honour: the life of William Brooke, Lord Cobham, Dorothy had offended the Brookes by behaving badly to Lady Cobham, her mother-in-law. In London, she lived in the Paget household, where she kept up a little home of her own on an allowence of £66 13s. 4d. William visited her there on his leaves. When the Pagets left London, it is unclear where Dorothy went, but it was at the house of Reginald Peckham in Yaldham, Kent that she gave birth to her only child, Frances, on July 31, 1549. Most records agree that the marriage was not happy. Dorothy and William had separated by 1553. In 1554, when William was arrested for his part in Wyatt's Rebellion, his wife is said to have been responsible for his pardon. Certainly her brother, Henry, by then Lord Bergavenny, interceded to secure Brooke's release. Well before 1554, Dorothy had close personal experience with executions. Her uncle, Sir Edward Neville and her aunt's husband, Lord Montagu, were executed for treason in 1538 and her sister Mary's husband (see below) was executed for murder in 1541. The last year of her life, Dorothy lived at Cobham Hall while her husband lived in London, with the possible exception of July 18-21, when the queen paid a visit. Dorothy died there and was given a splendid funeral on October 4,1559. Portrait: 1553.
(1548-March 28, 1608)
Dorothy Neville was the daughter of John Neville, 4th baron Latimer (c.1520-1577) and Lucy Somerset (d. February 23, 1583). On November 27, 1564, she married Thomas Cecil (May 5, 1542-February 8, 1623. Their children were William (January 2, 1566-July 6, 1640), Richard (1570-September 4, 1633), David, Edward (February 29, 1572-November 16, 1638), Lucy (d.1614), Christopher, Thomas, Mary, Dorothy, Elizabeth (1577-January 3, 1646), Mildred (February 28, 1580/1-June 12, 1643, and Frances. Her husband became baron Burghley on the death of his father in 1598 and earl of Exeter in 1605. Portrait: date unknown.
see DOROTHY de VERE
see ELEANOR WINDSOR
(maiden name unknown)
This lady is usually referred to as Elizabeth Neville, Lady Bergavenny even though she had three other husbands prior to her marriage to George Neville, 4th baron Bergavenny (d. September 1492). Her origins are unknown. Her first husband was Sir Robert Bassett (d.c.1480), a salter who was Lord Mayor of London in 1475-6. He had a house in St. Mary Colchurch. After his death, his widow married Richard Naylor, whose will was probated in 1483. By Naylor she had at least one son, John, and was possibly also the mother of Robert Naylor. After Naylor's death, she married George Stoker or Stokker of St. George’s, Eastcheap. His will was probated in 1485. Her fourth husband, Lord Bergavenny, left her some personal items and forty marks. No doubt her marriage contract left her well provided for in the event of a fourth widowhood. In Elizabeth’s own will, written on April 14, 1500 and proved on June 19, 1500, she left her lands in Chatham, Chilham, Perham, Sellinge, and Boughton under Blore, Kent to her sons, John Naylor and Robert Naylor, but in leaving the "remainder" to Hugh, Thomasine, Alice, and Joan Naylor, she refers to Hugh and Robert as "brothers to the said John” and to the girls as "sisters to the said Hugh and Robert, respectively," confusing the issue of whether Robert was her son or stepson and implying that her second husband, Richard Naylor, had children by two previous wives before he married her. Elizabeth also specifies that she be buried with Naylor in the Church of St. Martin's Outwich, Bishopsgate, London.
Elizabeth Neville was the daughter of John Neville, marquess Montagu (1428-April 14, 1471) and Isabel Ingoldsthorpe (d. May 20, 1476). She married Thomas, Lord Scrope of Masham and Upsall (d.1494), by whom she had one child, Alice (d.1492). Elizabeth's second husband was Sir Henry Wentworth (d.1499/1500). Elizabeth made her will on March 7, 1513/14. She gave instructions for her body to be buried in the Blackfriars in London, beside her first husband, and for a stone to be put over her grave with the images of herself, her first husband, and their daughter upon it. She ordered a second tomb for her second husband in Newsom Abbey, Lincolnshire, and a third for her father and mother in Bisham Abbey, Berkshire. She made several bequests to specific women. To Mary Grey, "daughter in base unto Thomas Grey, Marquess of Dorset," she left "my bed that the said Lord Marquess was wont to lie in and all the parcel that belongeth thereo and all the apparel of the same chamber." To her sister, Lucy Neville, Lady Browne, she left "a primer and a psalter, which book I had of the gift of the most excellent princess King Henry the Seventh his mother." She left two servants, Katheryn Clyfton and Dorathe Danby, twenty marks apiece. And to her niece, Lucy Browne (d.1557), wife of John Cutte or Cutts (1507-1528), she left land in Cambridgeshire. She also made John Cutte and Lucy Browne her executors. The will was not proved until December 9, 1521.
ELIZABETH NEVILLE (d.1585)
According to the History of Parliament entry for her husband, Elizabeth Neville was the daughter of Sir Edward Neville of Billingbear, Berkshire. Some online genealogies give her parents as Sir Edward Neville of Addington Park, Kent (c.1471-x.January 12, 1538) and Eleanor Windsor (c.1479-March 25, 1531), but most do not include an Elizabeth among their children. Whoever her father was, Elizabeth married Thomas Eynns (Gynns/Heynes/Haynes) of York and Heslington, Yorkshire (c.1515-August 19, 1578). His will, dated January 4, 1578, left her Heslington, the prebend of Bugthorpe, and 759 ounces of plate. She was a gentlewoman of the privy chamber to Queen Elizabeth in 1558/9.
Elizabeth Neville was the daughter of John Neville, 4th baron Latimer (c.1520-April 22,1577) and Lucy Somerset (d. February 23, 1583). She was an ancestor of the biographer John Aubrey, who recorded that she “had Chaucer at her fingers’ ends” and “understood jewels as well as any jeweler,” as well as being able to “manage her estate as well as any man.” Elizabeth married Sir John Danvers of Dauntsey, Wiltshire (1540-December 19, 1593). Their children were Sir Charles (1568-1601), Lucy (1572-1621), Sir Henry (1573-1644), Elizabeth, Eleanor (d.1601), Anne, Catherine, Mary, John (June 28,1588-April 16,1655), and Dorothy (1590-1650). In October 1595, Charles and Henry were forced to flee the country following the murder of Henry Long, a member of a family with whom the Danvers family had been feuding for some time. In order to facilitate obtaining pardons for them, Elizabeth married Sir Edmund Carey (c.1557-September 12,1637), one of Lord Hunsdon’s sons and therefore Queen Elizabeth’s cousin. Shortly thereafter, Sir Charles was allowed to return to England. Sir Henry was pardoned a bit later. In 1601, however, Charles was again in need of a pardon, but this time his crime was conspiring with the earl of Essex and although his mother offered to pay £10,000 for his release, he was executed for treason. Portrait: effigy in St. Michael’s Church, Stowe, Northamptonshire.
see ELIZABETH BACON; ELIZABETH BRYCE
Frances Neville was the daughter of Sir Edward Neville of Aldington, Kent (1471-x.1538) and Eleanor Windsor (c.1479-March 25, 1531). Around 1544, she had married Sir Edward Waldegrave of Borley, Essex (1517-September 1, 1561). Their children included Magdalen (c.1545-September 8, 1598), Catherine, Mary (1549-August 29, 1604), Nicholas (c.1550-June 19, 1621), Charles (April 5, 1551-January 10, 1631/32), Frances, and Christopher. In September 1551, Waldegrave was in the Tower of London. Frances was permitted to go there to nurse him. He was released on October 24 and allowed to return to his own house on the following March 18. On April 24, he was set at liberty. Frances was one of Queen Mary's ladies in 1556. In 1561, both she and her husband were in the Tower for hearing mass. Sir Edward died there. During their imprisonment, Queen Elizabeth made use of their house at Smallbridge, Suffolk, on her annual progress. Frances's second husband, married c.1562, was Chidiock Paulet of Wade, Hampshire (before 1521-August 17, 1574), by whom she had one son, Thomas. Paulet was also a recusant. He was not persecuted for his faith but, in 1565, Frances's daughters by her first marriage were prevented from leaving England. Paulet left his widow all the plate, hangings, bedding, brass, and pewter he had received when they married and all his household silver. His eldest son by his first marriage was his principal heir. He his daughters by that marriage £900 between them, a £20 annuity to his son Thomas, and a horse to his stepson, Charles Waldegrave. Frances was living at the manor of Navestock, Essex, left to her for life by her first husband, at the time of her death. Portraits: effigy on Waldegrave tomb in Borley, Essex.
see FRANCES MANNERS
GRISELDA NEVILLE (c.1561-before 1614)
Griselda Neville was the daughter of Edward Neville, 7th baron Bergavenny (c.1526-February 10, 1588/9) and Katherine Brome (c.1528-1578). She married Henry Poole of Kemble, Gloucestershire and Oaksey, Wiltshire (1564-November 3. 1632), by whom she had two sons and one daughter, including Neville Poole (c.1592-1661). In about 1593, during the course of a dispute between Henry Poole and Sir Henry Knyvet over ownership of certain leases relating to Kemble, Knyvet and several of his armed servants forced their way into Kemble manor house, frightening Griselda. She was pregnant at the time. One online genealogies gives the date June 16, 1613 for the death of Katherine Brome. It is possible this was the date Griselda died. Her husband remarried in 1614.
see GRISOLD HUGHES
Isabel Neville was the daughter of Ralph, Lord Neville (d. February 6, 1498) and Edith Sandys (d. August 22, 1529). Before September 18, 1505, she married Sir Robert Plumpton of Plumpton Hall, Yorkshire (1453-1523). They had no children and by the time of their marriage, Plumpton was in dire financial straits due to lawsuits that prevented him from selling off property. One of her letters, included in the Plumpton Correspondence published by the Camden Society in 1838/9, reports on problems at Plumpton. Isabel writes: "Sir, I told you this [that his wood would be destroyed and he would get nothing for it] or ye went, but ye wold not beleve me." And later: "if ye will sell it [land at Rybstonfield], send word to your son what ye will doe, for I know nothing els wherwith to help you with. Sir, for God sake take an end, for we are brought to begger staffe." By April 1510, Plumpton was a prisoner in the Counter. Isabel chose to share his imprisonment, at least during August of that year, as revealed by records of payments to the keeper of the Counter. Legal wrangling over ownership of Plumpton land dragged on into 1518/19. After Plumpton died, Isabel married Lawrence Kighley of New Hall, Yorkshire (d.1529+) as his second wife.
see JANE HOWARD
see KATHERINE PARR
Katherine Neville was the daughter of Sir Ralph Neville of Thornton Brigge or Bridge, Yorkshire (d.1522) and Anne Ward (d. before December 1521). She appears to have married four times, although some genealogies omit husband #3. The first was Sir Walter Strickland of Sizergh Castle (d. January 9, 1527/8), by whom she had several children: Walter (April 5, 1516-April 8, 1569), Elizabeth, Thomas, Anne (c.1522-before 1594) and Mary (d.1587+). Katherine’s second husband was Henry Borough (c.1491-1529+), second son of Edward, Lord Borough of Gainsborough, Lincolnshire, by whom she had a daughter, Anne. They were married by September 19, 1528. Her third husband was named Darcy and they had one daughter, Frances Darcy. Last was William Knyvett, to whom Katherine was married by 1535. Nineteenth-century historian Agnes Strickland was the first to speculate that during her first widowhood, future queen Kathryn Parr might have lived with Katherine Neville at Sizergh Castle. The two women were distantly related and further connected by second marriages into the Borough family. Katherine’s son Walter became the ward of Cardinal Wolsey upon Sir Walter Strickland’s death and was replaced by his uncle, Thomas Strickland, in 1530. In 1535, Walter was betrothed to Margaret Hamerton, daughter of Sir Stephen Hamerton. On September 29 of that year, Katherine and her husband, William Knyvett, were fined in some sort of dispute over lands contained in Margaret’s inheritance. The marriage never took place, according to some accounts because Margaret committed suicide (called self-murder in those days). She does appear to have died before May 3, 1538, the date of her mother’s will, as she is not mentioned in that document. For more on Katherine’s son tangled marital history, see the entry under ALICE TEMPEST.
(1468-March 25, 1534)
Lucy Neville was the daughter of John Neville, marquess Montagu (1428-April 14, 1471) and Isabel Ingoldsthorpe (d. May 20, 1476). In about 1473, She married Sir Thomas FitzWilliam of Aldwark, West Riding, Yorkshire (1448-May 29, 1495) and had Thomas (c.1474-September 9, 1513), Richard, Anthony, John, (c.1488-September 9, 1513), William (c.1490-October 15, 1542), Elizabeth, Edmund, and Margaret. In 1483, she was coheiress to her brother, George Neville. Her second husband, married after April 27, 1497, was Sir Anthony Browne (1443-November 1506), by whom she had Sir Anthony (1500-1548), Lucy (1501-November 26, 1557), William (1503-1542), Henry (b.1506), and Elizabeth (d.1565). The date of Lucy’s first husband's death makes it impossible for her to have been the mother of Sir Anthony’s daughter, Anne Browne (d.1510), maid of honor to Elizabeth of York and wife of Charles Brandon. She may be the "Lady Lucy" to whom a messenger was sent from court in June 1509. She is almost certainly the "Dame Lucy" whose lands provided collateral for a royal loan of £200 to her son William in February 1513. She was a legatee in the 1514 will of her sister, Elizabeth Neville, Lady Scrope. In 1530, she was granted the dissolved abbey of Bayham and priory of Calceto and their manors in exchange for her 1/5 share of a annuity of fifty marks. she died at Bagshot, Surrey. In her will, written on August 20, 1531 and proved June 30, 1534, she asks to be buried at Bisham Abbey with her father.
see LUCY SOMERSET
MARGARET NEVILLE (1466-January 31, 1528)
Margaret Neville was the third daughter of John Neville, marquess Montagu (1428-April 14, 1471) and Isabel Ingoldsthorpe (d. May 20, 1476). She had a tangled matrimonial history. Her first marriage seems to have been to a man named John Horne, by whom she had a daughter, Anne. Then, before June 14, 1492, she married Sir John Mortimer (d. before November 12, 1504). It was as a wealthy widow that she attracted the interest of Charles Brandon (1485-August 22,1545), later duke of Suffolk, and he jilted Anne Browne, the daughter of Margaret’s sister, Lucy, to marry Margaret instead. The marriage took place on November 7, 1506 and was annulled, mostly because of Brandon’s precontract with Anne Browne, less than two years later. Margaret's next husband was Robert Downes. Some accounts attach her daughter, Anne, to this husband. According to Lady Cecilia Goff's A Woman of the Tudor Age (a biography of Brandon's last wife, Catherine Willoughby), Margaret remained on good terms with Brandon, who later supported her cause in "a sordid dispute over money with a daughter of hers by a former marriage."
(1520-December 25, 1575)
Margaret Neville was the daughter of Sir Thomas Neville of Mereworth (c.1474-May 29, 1542), fifth son of the second baron Bergavenny, and Catherine Dacre (d. August 20, 1527). On May 1, 1536, she married Sir Robert Southwell (1504-October 26, 1559), by whom she was the mother of Dorothy, Thomas (c.1542-1566/7), Francis, Robert, Henry, Anne, and Martha. He was buried November 8, 1559 in Kent. Her second husband, to whom she was married at Fulham on November 13, 1561, was William Plumbe of Eltham (1533-February 9, 1593). Margaret was buried in Wyddial, Hertfordshire with a memorial brass in the church of St. Giles.
Margaret Neville was the daughter of John Neville, 3rd baron Latimer (November 17, 1493-March 2, 1543) and Dorothy Vere (d. February 7, 1527). In 1534, she was betrothed to Ralph Bigod, son of Sir Francis (executed for treason in 1537). The marriage did not take place. Margaret was raised by her father’s second wife, Katherine Parr and came to court as one of her ladies when Katherine married Henry VIII and became queen of England. Her father's will left Margaret in Katherine's care and provided funds for this from properties in Nun Monckton and Hammerton. In December 1543, Katherine sent Margaret to Ashridge to spend part of the month with Katherine’s new stepdaughter, Elizabeth Tudor. Somewhat unusually for an unmarried woman in the 1540s, Margaret wrote a will. It was written March 23, 1546 and probated March 29, 1546. The queen was her primary benficiary, but she also left bequests to Elizabeth Garrett/Fitzgarrett (£20) and to her servants, Dorothy Fountayne (£4/year), Margaret Paye (40s), Nicholas Pygott (40s) and William Savage (40s). She died at Greenwich and was buried in St. Paul's. The queen paid her funeral expenses and provided £6 to be distributed to the poor of Greenwich.
(1529-October 12, 1559)
Margaret Neville was the daughter of Ralph Neville, 4th earl of Westmorland (February 21, 1497/8-April 24, 1549) and Catherine Stafford (c.1499-May 14, 1555). She was married on July 3, 1536 to Henry Manners, 2nd earl of Rutland (September 23, 1526-September 17, 1563) as part of a triple wedding of child couples. On August 16, 1542, when her father-in-law wrote his will, he left Margaret, who was at that time Lady Ros, the manor of Melton Ros, Lincholnshire and other lands for life, but only after "the decease of the Countess and after carnal knowledge had in lawful matrimony between my son Henry, Lord Ros, and the Lady Margaret Ros." Her children were Edward, 3rd earl (July 12, 1549-April 14, 1587), John, 4th earl (1551-February 24, 1587/8), and Elizabeth (1554-1594). She died in Holywell, Shoreditch and was buried in St. Leonard's. She shares a monument there, erected in 1591, with Catherine Stafford, Eleanor Paston, and Catherine Neville. Her death date there is given as 1560. Portrait: effigy on her husband's tomb in Bottesford, Leicestershire.
MARGARET NEVILLE (1564-1604+)
Margaret Neville was one of the four daughters of Charles Neville, 6th earl of Westmorland (August 8, 1542-November 16, 1601) and Jane Howard (1537?-1593). She was only five years old when her parents committed treason by rising up against Queen Elizabeth in the Northern Rebellion of 1569. Her father fled into exile, where he lived, mostly in Louvain, with a dozen servants and a pension of 200 crowns a month from King Philip of Spain. Her mother was kept under house arrest for the rest of her life, receiving an annuity of £300 from the queen. Margaret received £33 6s.8d. out of this for living expenses. After her mother died, Margaret lost that income. She was staying in Waterhouses, a village in Durham, in a house called the Waterhouse that belonged to William Claxton or Clapton. It was later described as "a mean place for a woman of her calling, being a straw-thatched house and containing scarce an honest lodging for one of mean estate." Adelin Claxton, listed as her maid, was with her. On September 10, 1593, the authorities raided the house and captured John Boost (Boste/Boast), a priest. Margaret, together with Adelin and Grace Claxton (her husband, William, was already in prison) were arrested and taken to Bransby Castle. At the next Assizes, both Margaret Neville and Grace Claxton were found guilty of harboring a priest. Grace was sentenced to be hanged but was reprieved when she was found to be pregnant. She was pardoned on June 30, 1594. Margaret was advised to plead guilty and ask the queen for mercy. She confessed to the treason of having received a seminary priest, contrary to the queen's laws, but her pardon was delayed, possibly because her father was still at large on the Continent. She was not, contrary to some statements online, condemned to death "along with her father." His treason had been committed twenty-five years earlier. At some point, Margaret was held in the house of Matthew Hutton, Bishop of Durham (soon to be Bishop of York). He wrote to Lord Burghley twice on her behalf, once on December 11, 1594 and again in February 1594/5. In the second letter he wrote "she is wholly reclaimed from popery . . . her unfortunate father did enter the rebellion and now she is a condemned person, having not one penny a year to live upon since the death of her mother." Margaret herself wrote to the queen on February 14, 1594/5, professing herself to be a loyal subject and claiming to have been led astray by recusants. As a result, she was granted a pardon and a pension. She wrote a thank you letter to Sir Robert Cecil on May 27, 1595. By 1598, she had reverted to Catholicism. She married Sir Nicholas Pudsey of Barham House in Yorkshire, by whom she had a daughter, Margaret. In 1604, she received an annuity of 100 marks from King James.
see MARGARET CHOLMELEY
see MARY BROOKE; MARY FITZLEWIS; MARY STAFFORD
MARY NEVILLE (1523-1578+)
Mary Neville was the daughter of George Neville, 3rd baron Bergavenny(c.1469-June 13,1535) and Mary Stafford (c.1495-before 1530). In 1536 she married Thomas Fiennes, 3rd Baron Dacre of the South (1517- June 29, 1541) and had by him three children, Thomas (1537-August 1553), Gregory (June 1539-September 25, 1594), and Margaret (1541-March 10,1611/12). Both Lord and Lady Dacre were among those who welcomed Anne of Cleves to England, but on the eve of May Day 1541, Lord Dacre was “tempted by his own folly or that of his friends to join a party to kill deer” in Laughton Park, Sussex, which belonged to a neighbor, Sir Nicholas Pelham. Pelham’s gamekeeper, John Busbrig, objected. A fight broke out in which Busbrig was killed. Even though Dacre was not the one who delivered the fatal blow and was in fact in another part of the park at the time, he was held responsible, convicted of “manslaughter following deer stealing,” and hanged at Tyburn. His estates and title were forfeit, leaving Mary and her children destitute. It is possible this was a case of judicial murder, designed to allow the king to seize the estate. On July 2, 1541, Henry VIII ordered that “all her apparel of velvet, satin, pearls, stones or goldsmiths work” be returned to the widow, along with £50, but she was denied her dowry and her jointure lands. In 1542, an act of Parliament granted her the income from several manors. “Mary Fynes, widowe,” as she was now styled, remarried twice, first, before 1546, to John Wotton of North Tuddingham, Norfolk and then to Francis Thursby of Congham, Norfolk, by whom she had at least six children, three sons and three daughters, by 1559. Under Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth, the Fiennes fortunes improved. Mary Neville’s second son, Gregory Fiennes, was restored as Lord Dacre in 1561. In 1578, her former brother-in-law, Henry Wotton (not to be confused with the author named Henry Wotton who was born in 1568) published a translation he had made from the French of a collection of Italian romance stories, which he dedicated to Lady Dacre. The title is "A Courtlie Controversie of Cupids Cantils containing five Tragicall Historyes by three Gentlemen and two Gentlewomen." If she died on December 18, 1565, the date given in some genealogies, this seems rather odd. Dedications are generally made to living persons able to reward the author for the honor. Portraits: Mary Neville commissioned two portraits by Hans Eworth, both as part of her campaign to restore her husband's title to her son. The first, c.1555, shows Lord Dacre in an inset marked 1540. The second, c.1559, shows Lady Dacre with her son, Gregory. For years this double portrait was misidentified as Frances Brandon, duchess of Suffolk, and her second husband, Adrian Stokes.
NEVILLE (March 25,
1554-June 28, 1626)
Mary Neville was the daughter of Henry Neville, 4th baron Bergavenny (c.1530-February 10, 1586/7) and Frances Manners (c.1530-September 1576). Mary was the second wife of Sir Thomas Fane of Badsell, Tudeley, Kent (1538-March 13, 1589), to whom she was married on December 12, 1574. As early as 1588, she advanced a claim to the Bergavenny barony, creating a dispute that lasted into the next reign. Her cousin Edward Neville of Birling, Kent (c.1550-1622) tried to assume the title after his father died in 1589, but Mary made so many difficulties that the dispute finally (in 1598) came before the commissioners for the office of earl marshall. She then carried the feud into the Parliament of 1601 to prevent the disposal of certain copyhold lands. On May 25, 1604, she was created baroness Le Despencer in her own right. Her son, Sir Francis Fane (February 1579-March 23, 1628), was created earl of Westmorland in 1624. Her other children were Frances, George (d.1640), Thomas, and Edward. She died at Mereworth, Kent.
Ursula Neville was the daughter of George, 3rd baron Bergavenny (c.1469-June 13,1535) and his third wife, Mary Stafford (c.1495-before 1530). In about 1550 she married Sir Warham St. Leger (1525-1597) and was the mother of Anne (1555-1636), Sir Anthony (c.1557-December 19,1602), Nicholas (d.c.1602), Henry, George (c.1562-1620), William (1564-1594), Mary (c.1570-1578) and Jane. In 1568, the family moved to Ireland, where Sir Warham hoped to establish a colony. Unfortunately for Ursula, the idea was not popular with the Irish. While Sir Warham was in England seeking further support in June 1569, Ursula was beseiged in Carrigaline, Cork. She and Mary St. Leger, her husband's cousin and the wife of Sir Richard Grenville, reportedly held out until relief came, although other records indicate that they had to seek the protection of the earl of Ormond at Kilkenny. St. Leger abandoned his plans to colonize and the family returned to England in 1570. From 1570-72 the St. Legers had custody of the earl of Desmond and his family at Leeds Castle, Kent.
MARY NEWBOROUGH (d.1604+) (maiden name unknown)
Mary Newborough was the second wife of George Newborough or Newburgh of Berkley, Somerset (d.August 10, 1603), who was convicted of highway robbery at some point before November 1596 and imprisoned in the King's Bench. Mary could not have married him earlier than March 1589, when his first wife died. Newborough was a country gentleman, but when he was convicted his estate was forfeited, leaving Mary with no means of support. She turned to prostitution in London. In 1597 and 1598 she worked in Eleanor Dethrick's establishment, where she had a number of Italians as her clients. She was sent to Bridewell on October 14, 1598. The date of her release is not known, but by June 1599 she was established in the brothel of Mrs. Anne Miller in Chick Lane. She had with her a maid, Susan Adams, who called herself Mrs. Hudson and claimed to be the wife of a haberdasher in St. Paul's Churchyard. In late August, Mary and Katherine Arden, another prostitute, traveled by coach to see the muster in St. James's Park. Mary was again in Bridewell from early September 1599 until January 31, 1600. The length of her imprisonment was in part due to the fact that one of her admirers, John Abel, an alderman's retainer, had stolen £70 to spend on gifts to her. During this imprisonment, she was allowed to have her maid, Susan Adams, visit her and bring her money, clothing, and food. At some point between January and June, Mary and Mary Digby, with whom she had at one point been sharing a room in Bridewell, were carted, three days together, through the streets of London, in one of the traditional punishments for harlotry. Mary was jailed again from July 1601 until January 17, 1603. On July 3, 1601 she was ordered to wear a blue gown and be set to spinning while in prison. On August 8, 1601, she was granted the privilege of speaking with her mother and Susan Adams in the presence of the governor of Bridewell and arrangements were made for her mother to pay for a special diet for her. It was during this confinement, on March 29, 1602, that Bridewell's management was farmed out for a period of ten years to four London men. They took over the management on April 20, 1602 and before long had converted Bridewell into a brothel. At first Mary welcomed the change, but there were abuses. On July 31, the Lord Mayor set up a committee to investigate and on October 16, 1602, the experiment ended. During that time Mary was savagely beaten by Nicholas Bywater, one of the four, for objecting to his treatment of other women. She seems to have been the one who organized a protest that ended with Bywater's arrest. In December, she attempted an escape, which resulted in a loss of the privileges she'd acquired while the establishment was run as a brothel. Having failed with one method, Mary turned to another. She convinced the authorities that she had repented and would give up her evil ways. She was released and given 5s. in temporary financial aid—a dowry of sorts. From her release early in 1603 until November 21, 1604, when she was granted administration of her husband's estate, thus giving her a claim to her jointure rights, Mary stayed out of trouble. According to Gustav Ungerer in "Prostitution in Late Elizabethan England: The Case of Mary Newborough," in Medieval and Renaissance Drama in England, Vol. 15, edited by John Pitcher, Robert Lindsey, and Susan Cerasano, she did not want to risk forfeiting her rights and is presumed to have returned to Berkley and settled there. Mary figured in letters, songs, and drama both before and after her departure from London. Ungerer argues that it was Mary Newborough, not Mary Fitton, who is the "Mistress Moll" referred to in Shakespeare's Twelfth Night, first performed on February 2, 1602 when Mary was still in prison.
see ANNE FITTON; ANNE STANHOPE
see ELIZABETH LOVETT
JANE NEWDIGATE (August 18, 1496-July 7, 1571)
Jane Newdigate was the daughter of John Newdigate of Moor Hall, Harefield (1460-August 15, 1528) and Amphelicia or Amphyllis Neville (1463-July 15, 1544)). In 1512, Jane married Sir Robert Dormer of West Wycombe, Buckinghamshire and later of Ascott Manor, Wing, Buckinghamshire (d. July 12, 1552) and was the mother of Sir William Dormer (1503-May 17, 1575). She is said to have rejected Sir Francis Bryan's suggestion that her son marry Jane Seymour, considering the match beneath him, but according to Eric Ives's biography of Anne Boleyn, this story is probably apocryphal. Jane Seymour went on to marry King Henry VIII while William Dormer married Mary Sidney (d.1542). Jane raised her granddaughter, Jane Dormer (January 6, 1538-January 13, 1612) until Jane became a maid of honor to Mary Tudor. After Queen Mary died in 1558, Jane married the count of Feria and left England in July 1559, taking her grandmother with her. Lady Dormer accompanied the countess of Feria as far as Mechlin, where the countess gave birth to a son. When she continued on to Spain with her husband, however, Lady Dormer went to Louvain, where she became a leading light in the community of English Catholic exiles. She attempted to return to England only once, to collect her rents, but was forbidden to enter the country by Queen Elizabeth. She was buried in the Charterhouse in Louvain.
see BENNET FOLJAMBE
Elizabeth Newport was the daughter of George Newport of Brent Pelham, Hertfordshire and Margaret Tyrwhitt. She married Thomas Barnardiston of Great Cotes, Lincolnshire (d. June 29, 1503) and had by him fifteen children, seven of them sons, including Thomas (d.1542), George, John (d.1549?), Edmund, Margaret, and Elizabeth. The family also occupied a messuage in Watling Street, London and Kedington, Suffolk became the family seat early in the sixteenth century. Thomas Barnardiston was buried in Great Cotes, where his widow rebuilt the roof and had it covered in lead. Although Elizabeth was the executor of his will, their eldest son opposed the establishment of a chantry, which was one of the provisions. She was forced to bring suit against him in Chancery (records are dated from 1504 to 1509) in an attempt to force him to release the land Thomas had specified be used to endow it. It was 1517 before she received a license from the Crown to found the chantry and it had not yet been built when she died. She spent her last years living at Walsingham Priory and made the prior of Walsingham her executor to make sure that her wishes would be carried out. To pay for other endowments, she had purchased a manor in Cambridgeshire. Income from this property was to be used for the support of a scholar who became known as "Lady Barnardiston's Child." Portraits: memorial brass in Great Cotes; effigy and portrait in stained glass in Kedington.
GRACE NEWPORT (1515-c.1549)
Grace Newport was the daughter of John Newport of Furneux Pelham, Hertfordshire (1497-June 1522 or May 26,1523) and Mary Daniel. She was married at the age of eight to Henry Parker (c.1513-January 6, 1552) on May 18, 1523 and was the mother of Henry, 9th baron Morley (January 1533-October 22,1577), Charles (b.January 28, 1537), Edmund, Mary (c.1539-November 7, 1544), Margaret, and Ann (or Amy) (d.October 1571). According to Alison Weir's Henry VIII: The King and His Court, she was one of Anne Boleyn's ladies in waiting from 1533. Portrait: Grace is generally accepted to be the subject of the Holbein drawing inscribed “The Lady Parker.”
MAGDALEN NEWPORT (1558-June 1627)
Magdalen Newport was the daughter of Sir Richard Newport of High Ercall and Eyton, Shropshire (c.1518-September 12,1570) and Margaret Bromley (1521-August 10,1598). Magdalen's birthdate is given by some sources as 1552. She and her brother Francis (1554-March 15,1622) were childhood friends of Sir Philip Sidney. Magdalen married Sir Richard Herbert of Llysyn, Blackhall, and Montgomery Castle (c.1557-1596/7) by whom she had seven sons and three daughters: Edward (March 3, 1582-1648), Richard (d.1622), William, Charles (1592-1617), George (April 3, 1593-1633), Henry (1595-1673), Elizabeth, Margaret (d.1623), Frances, and Thomas (May 15,1597-1642). Some genealogies add a Dorothy. Her eldest son was born in her parent's home at Eyton-on-Severn, Shropshire, where he lived until he was nine. Her youngest, posthumous son was born in Montgomery. Administration of her husband's goods was granted jointly to Magdalen and the fourteen-year-old heir on May 3, 1597. Although her oldest sons’ wardship was sold to Sir George More of Loseley, Magdalen kept control of his education. She lived in Oxford from 1598 to 1602, while he was a student there, and so met John Donne, who became a lifelong friend. He addressed much of his poetry to her and recorded that her second marriage in 1609, to a much younger man, Sir John Danvers (1584/5-1655) was a happy one. Magdalen was held in high esteen by Donne and by Izaak Walton. With Danvers, she lived in London and at Danvers House, Chelsea, which adjoined the mansion formerly owned by Sir Thomas More. They fled there during the plague of 1625. The property was famous for its garden, laid out in the Italian manner. Magdalen was buried in the parish church in Chelsea. Donne preached the funeral sermon and her son George composed commemorative verses that were later published. Biography: Amy M. Charles, "Mrs. Herbert's Kitchin Book," English Literary Renaissance, vol.4, #1, pp. 164-173. Portraits: portrait by Federigo Zuccaro; effigy on the monument erected by her in 1600 in the Lymore chancel of Montgomery Church.
see MARGARET BROMLEY
see MARGARET BASFORTH
ELINOR NEWTON (d.1588)
Elinoar Newton was one of the twenty-one children of Sir John Newton or Cradock of East Harptree, Somerset and Hanham, Gloucestershire (c.1505-1568) and Margaret Poyntz (c.1505-1559). She married John Eliot (d. February 6, 1571/2). He was outlawed in 1571. On March 19, 1570/1, her sister Nazaret Newton Southwell was granted the forfeitures incurred by John Eliot. Elinor wrote her will September 16, 1588 and it was proved November 7, 1588. She left 20s. to the poor of West Malling and £6 to her daughter, Anne, wife of Robert Harris of Reading, Berkshire. She appointed her sister Jane as executor.
FRANCES NEWTON (c.1529-October 17, 1592)
Frances Newton was one of the twenty-one children of Sir John Newton or Cradock of East Harptree, Somerset and Hanham, Gloucestershire (d.1568) and Margaret Poyntz (c.1505-1559). Her sister Jane introduced her into the household of Elizabeth Brooke Parr, marchioness of Northampton and the marchioness recommended her to Elizabeth Tudor. She was a gentlewoman of the bedchamber to Elizabeth before 1558 and continued as one of her chamberers after Elizabeth became queen. Later in the reign, Frances's younger sister, Katherine, also became a chamberer. On Shrove Sunday, February 25, 1559/60 in the queen's Great Closet at court Frances married William Brooke, 10th baron Cobham (November 1, 1527-March 6, 1597), a widower with one daughter. William Barlow, bishop of Chichester, performed the ceremony. A private bill for the jointure of Frances Brooke was passed by Parliament in December 1566. This assured her of lands as a widow valued at £279 12s.7d./year when her mother-in-law, Anne Bray Brooke had held them eight years earlier. On July 17, 1560, the queen visited Cobham Hall on her summer progress and she returned there for another visit on September 4, 1573. Frances was six or seven months pregnant when she was sent to welcome Christina of Denmark to England, accompanied by fourteen of Kent's leading gentry. They included her husband's aunt, Lady Hart, and her sister-in-law, Lady Norton. Frances was considered to be one of the queen's closest friends, although, according to Natalie Mears in "Politics in the Elizabethan Privy Chamber" in Women and Politics in Early Modern England, 1450-1550, edited by James Daybell, she was also Mary Queen of Scots's contact in the Privy Chamber and in communication with Jane Dormer, duchess of Feria, an English ex-patriot living in Spain. David McKeen in A Memory of Honour: the life of William Brooke, Lord Cobham, theorizes that she was acting on orders from the queen in encouraging Claude Nau, who visited her on behalf of Mary in November 1584, to believe she was sympathetic to the Scots queen. In 1564, although again pregnant, she traveled with her husband and sister-in-law the marchioness to Antwerp in the hope of finding a cure for Lady Northampton's breast cancer. They disembarked on April 16, 1564 and by early May had received the verdict that there was no cure. They returned to England in mid-May. On the 1587 list Frances was recorded as one of the four Ladies of the Bedchamber. She was not mistress of robes, as there was as yet no such official position in the queen's household, but this title was applied to her by one of the foreign ambassadors. She was responsible for Queen Elizabeth's mufflers and forehead cloths. In 1590, Frances was godmother to the child of John Dee who was christened Madimi Newton Dee. Although she was never gone from court for long, she and her husband had a large family, including Maximilian (December 4, 1560-1583), twins Elizabeth (January 12, 1561/2-1597) and Frances (January 12, 1561/2-1615+), Margaret (June 2, 1563-1621), Henry, 11th baron (November 22, 1564-January 24, 1619), William (1565-1597), and George (April 17, 1568-December 5, 1603). McKeen gives her date of death as September 5, 1592 and says she was probably ill through most of 1591 and 1592. Biography: Oxford DNB entry under "Brooke [née Newton], Frances." Portrait: the Cobham family portrait, painted in 1567 by the artist A. W., also known as the Master of the countess of Warwick. When I obtained permission from Longleat to reproduce this painting in Wives and Daughters (1984), the sitters were identified for me by the curator there as Frances (standing), her husband, her sister, Joanna [Jane] (seated) and six of Frances's children. The Oxford DNB also states this, as does David McKeen in his biography of William Brooke, Lord Cobham, who also states that the seated woman is identified as unmarried. More recently, Susan James has argued that the seated woman is Frances while the woman standing is Elizabeth Brooke, marchioness of Northampton, Lord Cobham's sister, who had died two years earlier. Such memorial portraits were not unheard of. Henry VIII had his children painted with himself and his third wife several years after Jane Seymour's death. There were later additions to this portrait when a seventh child was born and a copy of the Cobham Family Portrait, apparently commissioned c.1590 by Frances's daughter Elizabeth, shows another child, one who appears to be the same age as the twins. McKeen theorizes that the artist simply added another boy child to the group portrait and was not attempting to accurately represent individuals.
JANE NEWTON (c.1528-February 20, 1594/5)
Jane (or Joanna) Newton was the fifth daughter of twenty-one children born to Sir John Newton or Cradock of East Harptree, Somerset and Hanham, Gloucestershire (c.1505-1568) and Margaret Poyntz (c.1505-1559). She was in the service of Elizabeth Brooke Parr, Marchioness of Northampton for many years, introducing her younger sister Frances into that household before 1558. She and her youngest sister, Nazaret, were in the marchioness's service when she died in 1565. At that time the marchioness owed her more than £30 in addition to her wages. Jane’s father made his will on August 23, 1561 and it was proved on November 17, 1568. She married at about forty Hugh Cartwright of London, West Maling, Kent and Ossington, Nottinghamshire (d.1572), a nephew of Archbishop Cranmer. They had no children and his death left her a wealthy widow. His will, written December 10, 1571, left her all his household stuff and all the profits of the dissolved abbey of West Maling. His principal heir was a nephew. The validity of the inventory of his possessions was contested in the court of requests on behalf of the nephew after the will was proved on July 5, 1572. Her second husband, married on December 9, 1574, was Sir James FitzJames of Redlinch, Somerset (d.1579). They lived at West Maling, Kent. He made his will on August 25, 1579 and it was proved on November 14, 1579. Her companion at West Maling after c.1572 was her widowed sister Elinor. Her heirs were the Brookes, not the Newstons, in particular her nephew Sir George Brooke. Portrait: Jane is the spinster sister of Lady Cobham shown seated with a baby on her lap in the Cobham family portrait, 1567; portraits dated 1593(?) identified as Hugh and Jane Cartwright.
see JOAN BUCKLAND
see KATHERINE PASTON
see MARGARET POYNTZ
NAZARET NEWTON (c.1541-April 16, 1583)
Nazaret Newton was the youngest daughter, one of twenty-one children, of Sir John Newton or Cradock of East Harptree, Somerset and Hanham, Gloucestershire (c.1505-1568) and Margaret Poyntz (c.1505-1559). She was in the service of the marchioness of Northampton when the marchioness died in 1565 and later in the 1560s was a gentlewoman of the privy chamber to the queen. The marchioness left her some plate and half of her gold-edged ruffs. Nazaret married, as his third wife, Sir Thomas Southwell of Woodrising Hall, Norfolk (c.1542-c.1572), by whom she had two children, Robert (1563-October 12, 1599) and Elizabeth (1569-1602+). Her second husband was Thomas, 3rd baron Paget (d. 1590), by whom she had a son, William (1572-1629). After they married, Paget dismissed all of his wife’s servants, including Margret Bulter, aged "about 27." Gilbert Talbot, who called Paget an "evell husband," wrote in a letter on May 25, 1573 that he had obtained Margret's services for his wife Mary (née Cavendish). In 1578, Queen Elizabeth visited Woodrising Hall on progress, even though both the Southwells and the Pagets were known recusants. Nazaret formally separated from Paget in 1581/2 and informed against him. According to A Memory of Honour: the life of William Brooke, Lord Cobham by David McKeen, Paget loved his wife despite her constant demands and stayed in England in the hope of reconciliation. He fled England for Paris only after her death. Portrait: c.1578 at age 31 (which would push Nazaret's birthdate ahead to c.1547).
THEODOSIA NEWTON (d.1591+)
Theodosia Newton was one of the twenty-one children of Sir John Newton or Cradock of East Harptree, Somerset and Hanham, Gloucestershire (c.1505-1568) and Margaret Poyntz (c.1505-1559). She married Thomas Manners of Nottingham Castle (1537-May 1591), the first earl of Rutland's fourth son, in 1571. His estates were in Nottinghamshire. She was among the gentlewomen hand-picked by the queen to attend the funeral held for Mary Queen of Scots at Peterborough on August 1, 1587. When her husband died in London, outlawed for debt and in disgrace, she was left with very little money and forced to "spread" her children "abroad in order not to pester one house with them all." Her in-laws came to her aid. Her sister, Lady Cobham, apparently did not. Her children with Manners were Charles, Anne, Eleanor, Theodosia, and at least two more. The queen granted her all the goods forfeited by the outlawry of Sir Thomas.
THEOPHILA NEWTON (d.1577+)
Theophila, sister of Frances Newton (above) was another of one of the twenty-one children of Sir John Newton or Cradock of East Harptree, Somerset and Hanham, Gloucestershire (c.1505-1568) and Margaret Poyntz (c.1505-1559). She married William Butler of Great Badminton, Gloucestershire (1534-August 5, 1577) and was the mother of his son Nicholas and two daughters. According to the History of Parliament he left each daughter £500 and £200 to his sister Margaret and all his goods to his son. The entry does not mention a widow but does state that the will was not proved until 1586. According to A Memory of Honour: the life of William Brooke, Lord Cobham by David McKeen, Theophila Butler of Badminton is wrongly identified as the wife of William Somerset, 3rd earl of Worcester (1527-February 21, 1588/89) because of a mistake in a manuscript entry made c. 1620. Her second husband was William Paratt of Pantglas. Gwynedd, Wales. Portrait: c. 1567.
Joan Nicholls was the daughter and heiress of John Nicholls (d.1531), merchant taylor of London, and his first wife. She married Thomas Offley or Ofley of Madeley (c.1500-August 1582), another merchant taylor and a native of Stafford, Staffordshire who was Lord Mayor of London in 1556. Once source says they married in 1532 and another that they were married for fifty-two years. They had three sons, including Henry (c.1538-November 13, 1612+). An inventory of their house at Hackney, taken in 1582, can be found online at TudorBritain.org
(1504-April 10, 1594)
Helen Nicolson was the daughter of William Nicolson, a London draper, and his wife Joan. In honor of her long life, no fewer than four pamphlets seem to have been printed. One, Epicedium, was a sequence of twelve sonnets describing her life. It makes mention of a number of poets then living. Joshua Sylvester (1563-1618) wrote an elegy, Monodia, celebrating her virtuous life and godly death. Another pamphlet, variously attributed to William Herbert and William Harvey, was titled A commemoration of the life and death of the right worshipfull and vertuous ladie; Dame Helen Branch . . .. Helen was buried on April 29, 1594 in St. Mary Abchurch, London, where both her husbands were also interred. Her first husband was John Mynor or Minor, a wealthy draper, to whom she was married for some forty years. She was in her late fifties when, in 1568, she married John Branch (1515-July 24, 1588), a draper who was later Lord Mayor of London (1580-81), as his second wife. According to one of the elegies, this marriage "much increast hir stile, her state, and store." After his death, she "past hir time in holy meditation." Helen made her will on February 4, 1593/4. A transcript can be found at http://philobiblon.co.uk. Helen made many bequests, both to friends and to charity. She named her nephew, Robert Nicolson, as executor, although her brother, Benjamin, was still living.
see JEANNE de GONTAUT
Katherine Norlond was the daughter of London Alderman Thomas Norlond, a grocer. Her first husband was Thomas Wyndout (d.1499/1500), a mercer. They had one child, Bartholomew (d. August 23, 1521). She married her second husband, Sir Richard Haddon (d.1517), another mercer who was Lord Mayor of London in 1506/7 and again in 1513, at the sae time his son, William Haddon, married her stepdaughter, Joan Wyndout. Between 1504 and 1507, Haddon paid Henry VII over £1000 for matters relating to the marriages and the executorship of Wyndout's will, an amount later admitted to be excessive. Although Joan bore her husband six children, the marriage was a failure and according to Anne F. Sutton, The Mercery of London, Appendix 2, Sir Richard had to "take action to protect his daughter-in-law and her children." In his will, made on August 1, 1516, Sir Richard named Katherine his executor and left her all his lands, mostly in Northamptonshire and Oxfordshire, for life. His son would inherit after her only if he "supported his wife and children in a proper manner." Katherine also had property of her own at Idbury, Oxfordshire but she lived at the time of her death in "Haddon's great place at Crutched Friars in Seething lane." Sutton suggests Katherine may also have been a silkwoman. She made her will on November 21, 1524. It included provisions to support five almswomen, although it was 1542 before anyone benefitted from this charity and in its last year (1551) the bequest was transferred to loans to young men of the company instead. She was buried with her first husband in St. Antonin's parish.
see ANNE HORNE
see ANNE ELMES
Anne Norris was the daughter of Sir William Norris of Yattendon, Berkshire (1433-January 4, 1506/7) and his third wife, Joan Horne. Her first husband was William Wroughton of Broad Hinton, Wiltshire (d. before 1515), by whom she had a son, William (1509/10-1559) and a daughter, Anne. After his death, she married Sir John Baldwin of Aylesbury, Buckinghamshire (1468/9-1545). They had no children and by the time he died, Anne had long been "abstracted of her wits." In October 1545, Edward Seymour, then earl of Hertford, wrote to Sir William Paget to ask that her son, William Wroughton, who had been, as a minor, the ward of Hertford's father, Sir John Seymour, be granted custody of his mother. Instead, three months later, she was committed to the care of the recently widowed Lady Carew (MARY NORRIS).
see BRIDGET KINGSMILL; BRIDGET de VERE
see ELIZABETH MORISON
Elizabeth Norris was the daughter of Sir William Norris or Norreys of Yattendon Castle, Buckinghamshire. There is some confusion as to which generation she belongs in. Sir William Norris (1433-January 4, 1507) had a son named William, but Elizabeth is generally listed as the elder William's daughter. Sometimes her mother is given as Isabel Ingoldsthorpe (d. May 20, 1476), to whom Sir William was married on April 25, 1472 and Elizabeth's date of birth is given as c.1472. Other genealogies make her the daughter of Joan Horne (1455-?), who was probably Sir William's third wife, although some genealogies list her as the second and Isabel as the third. The genealogies that say she was Joan's daughter give her birth date as c.1584. Whoever she was, she was married to William Fermor of Somerton, Oxfordshire (d. July 20, 1552) as his fourth wife. He refers to her in his will as his "last wife." She was his sole executor. He instructed that there be "no pomp or vainglory" in the funeral. Ferrers built a new manor house at Somerton, Oxfordshire c.1504 and raised sheep there. Portrait: memorial brass at Somerton
NORRIS (d. April
Elizabeth Norris was the daughter and heir of John Norris of Fifield in the parish of Bray, Berkshire (c.1550-December 1612) and Mary Basford (Beresford/Bashford). Her first husband was a man named Webb, of Salisbury, who left her a wealthy widow. On July 17, 1600, she married Sir Edward Norris of Englefield, Oxfordshire (c.1550-September 8, 1603), one of the Rycote Norris family. He bought Englefield for £1500, enlarged the house, and made a new park for his wife.The queen visited them there in 1601. That same year, husband and wife went to court to effect a reconciliation with Sir Robert Cecil following litigation with the new LordNorris, Sir Edward's nephew, who was married to Cecil's niece. Her third husband, to whom she was married in 1604, was Thomas Erskine, 1st viscount Fenton and later earl of Killie (1566-1639). He was involved in litigation over Norris's will with Lord Norris. Norris offered to settle by paying £2000 for Norris's debts and £1000 for his servants. In 1613, Lady Fenton (or Fentoun) was granted letters of administration for her late father's estate, although Sir Henry Neville of Billingbear had been named executor. Fenton complained to the king about him. Elizabeth does not appear to have had any children, although she was said to have feigned a miscarriage during her marriage to Norris.
Elizabeth Norris was the daughter of Bridget de Vere (April 6, 1584-c.1630) and Francis Norris of Rycote, Oxfordshire, later earl of Berkshire (July 6,1579-January 29,1622). She was said to be the mistress of Philip Herbert, earl of Montgomery and Pembroke (1584-1650), who was married to her aunt, Susan de Vere. Some records say she was openly living with him in 1622. However, there is another version of the story that makes more sense. By 1621, Elizabeth was being courted by Edward Wray or Ray of the king’s household. The couple were said to be in love. But her father, who had just been created earl of Berkshire, was making difficulties. For one thing, he was contemplating divorce, which would make Elizabeth illegitimate. For another, Berkshire had elbowed Lord Scrope out of his way when Scrope tried to push in front of him in the House of Lords. Unfortunately, since Prince Charles was in attendance, this was a crime. Berkshire was sent to the Fleet. When he was released, he went home to Rycote and killed himself with a crossbow. As his death was a suicide, his estate was forfeit to the Crown and Elizabeth became the king’s ward. Fearful that she would be forced into a marriage with Christopher Villiers, brother of the king’s favorite, Elizabeth resolved to elope. She was apparently living in, or at least visiting, the earl of Montgomery’s house—the likely source of the story that she was his mistress—on March 27, 1622, when she crept out and walked three miles to St. Mary Aldermary’s Church to marry Wray. After the ceremony, she went to the Fleet Street house of her uncle, Henry de Vere, earl of Oxford, for protection. When news of the secret marriage got out, Wray was put under house arrest until February of 1623 and lost his post at court. Oxford was sent to the Tower. It is said that the story of the elopement inspired Orlando Gibbons’s Fantazies. It is not clear where Elizabeth was while her new husband was confined to his house, but they were eventually reunited and had a daughter, Bridget (May 12, 1627-March 1657). Elizabeth was suo jure baroness Norris of Rycote. Portrait: artist and date unknown.
NORRIS (d. March
Katherine Norris was the daughter of Henry, baron Norris (1525-June 27, 1601) and Marjorie Williams (d. December 1599). She married Sir Anthony Poulett or Paulet (1562-July 22, 1600) in 1583. He was governor of Jersey from 1588 until his death. Their son John (1586-1649) became 1st baron Poulett. Their daughters were Sarah, Elizabeth, and three others. Portrait; effigy on tomb at Hinton St. George, Somerset.
see MARJORIE WILLIAMS
MARY NORRIS, NORICE, or NORREYS (d.1570)
Mary Norris was the daughter of Sir Henry Norris (c.1491-x. May 17, 1536) and Mary Fiennes (d.1531). She was a maid of honor, some say to Anne Boleyn, probably to Jane Seymour, definitely to Anne of Cleves, and probably to Catherine Howard. There was also a Mary Norice in Elizabeth Tudor's household c. 1536, and this may also be the same woman. By February 1, 1541, Mary married Sir George Carew, Vice Admiral of the English fleet (c.1504-July 19, 1545) and was at Southsea Castle with the king in 1545, watching the ship her husband was aboard, the Mary Rose, when it suddenly rolled over and sank. Lady Carew fainted. In armor, her husband had no hope of surviving. In January 1546, she was given custody of Anne Norris, widowed Lady Baldwin, who "hath been of long abstracted of her wits." Mary married a second time in 1546 to Sir Arthur Champernowne of Dartington (c.1524-April 1,1578). She brought jointure lands worth £65/year to the marriage. With Sir Arthur she had five sons and one daughter: Gawen (1555-1592), Elizabeth, Philip, Charles, George, and Edward.
see MARY FIENNES; MARY GREY
see ALICE SQUIRE
or CHRISTIANA NORTH
(c.1529-March 20, 1564)
Christian or Christiana North was the daughter of Edward North, 1st baron North (1496-December 32, 1564) and Alice Squire (c.1500-1560). She married William Somerset, 3rd earl of Worcester (1527-February 21, 1589) on January 29, 1549/50. Their children were Edward (c.1550-March 3, 1628), Elizabeth, and Lucy (c.1554-January 18, 1603/4). Lady Worcester was at court in 1558/9. According to All the Queen's Women: The Changing Place and Perception of Aristocratic Women in Elizabethan England 1558-1620 (1987) by Joan Barbara Greenbaum Goldsmith, Christian separated from her husband during the 1560s. In November 1563 their estrangement was noticed by Queen Elizabeth and the separation was formalized in December. Worcester was to pay her £100/year and, after his mother’s death, £333 6s.8d. In the event, however, his mother outlived his wife.
see DOROTHY DALE
Joan North was the daughter of Roger North (c.1448-1509), a mercer, and Christian Warcup (d.c.1515). She married William Wilkinson (1481-1543), a London mercer, alderman and sheriff who had manors in Gloucestershire and Yorkshire. They had three daughters, Christian, Frances, and Jane (d.1571). Joan pursued a career as a silkwoman and served in that capacity in the household of Queen Anne Boleyn from 1533-1535. She embraced the evangelical beliefs of the queen's chaplain, William Latimer and when Latimer was apprehended in Sandwich with a shipment of banned books in 1535, he sent the books on to Joan in London. On February 6, 1538, John Husee, factor for Lady Lisle in London, wrote that he was sending her bonnets and frontlets that he had been able to purchase from Mrs. Wilkinson because Mrs. Hutton had not paid her for them. Under Mary Tudor, Joan was one of several gentlewomen who provided aid and comfort to imprisoned protestant divines. Eventually, however, she fled to the Continent with her daughter Jane and settled in Frankfurt am Main, where she died in the house of her cousin, Cuthbert Warcop. She left bequests to several communities of English exiles and specified that her daughter must marry a man who abhorred papistry. In about 1562, Jane Wilkinson married Michael Locke or Lok (1531-c.1625), brother of Rose Locke.The will of Katherine (see CATHERINE GEDDING) Hall, written February 24, 1556, refers to the sum of £250, owed to her by Mistress Wilkinson. She specified that £200 was to be paid to two poor artificers or merchants in London and £50 to the poor and needy of three local parishes. The money was due "for the lease of my house which I sold unto her." Catherine Gedding was also a cousin of Cuthbert Warcop's. This is a bit confusing because in the will Joan wrote in December 1556 (proved June 23, 1559), she refers to a house in Soper Lane where she had been living before she went into exile and to the lease on another house "in Saint Sythe’s Lane over against the house of Lady Warren," currently inhabited (or so she believed, apparently not having received word of her death) by Mrs. Katherine Hall. She leaves it, after Mrs. Hall "shall depart," to her cousin, William Holland, on the condition that he pay £50 "over and besides the fifty pounds which I have already paid and disbursed for the said house unto the aforenamed Mrs. Hall." She left her surviving daughter the manor of King’s Stanley, Gloucester and other properties. To her maidservant, Anne Spalding, she left £6 13s.4d. and to each of the other servants dwelling with her at the time of her death 40s. In addition, her old servant in London, Katherine Smythe, was also to receive 40s. The entire will can be found at http://www.oxford-shakespeare.com. Biography: Oxford DNB entry under "Wilkinson [née North], Joan."
see MARGARET BUTLER
see WINIFRED RICH
see ANNE PUTTENHAM
ANNE NORTON (January 5,1576-November 14,1615)
Anne Norton was the daughter of Thomas Norton of Hinxton, Cambridgeshire and Margaret Lowe. She was raised in the household of Thomas Howard, baron Howard of Walden (later earl of Suffolk). She may have been a nursemaid to his daughter, Frances (1593-1632). Anne left to marry Dr. George Turner (d.1610). In London, they were part of the Catholic underground. Anne was also into other dangerous activities. She was the mistress of Sir Arthur Mainwaring (c.1580-1649+), by whom she had three children during her husband’s lifetime. She was also a client of Dr. Simon Forman the astrologer, known for his “love philtres,” and visited him in early 1610 on Frances Howard’s behalf. Shortly after King James succeeded Queen Elizabeth in 1603, Anne Turner obtained a patent for yellow starch and yellow ruffs became all the fashion. When Turner died, he left £10 to Mainwaring to buy a ring with the inscription Fato junguntur Amantes (May the fates unite the lovers), with the understanding that the other man would marry Anne, but this did not happen. No one seems to know what became of their three children. As for Anne, she is said to have spent her inheritance and, not content with the income from her yellow starch, also acted as a caterer for exclusive supper parties and provided two houses, one in Paternoster Row and one in Hammersmith, where illicit lovers could meet. Lady Frances Howard, wife of the earl of Essex, met there with her lover, Robert Carr. Anne is also said to have provided Lady Frances with potions to make her husband impotent, thus enabling Frances to obtain an annulment and marry Carr. When Carr’s friend, Sir Thomas Overbury, was deemed to know too much about Frances’s activities, Anne also provided the arsenic used to murder him while he was a prisoner in the Tower. Although Overbury died on September 15, 1613, more than two years passed before accusations of murder resulted in the arrest of the conspirators. During that time, Anne persuaded Dr. Forman’s widow that some of Forman’s papers were too dangerous to keep and these were destroyed. In spite of the lack of this evidence, Anne Turner’s trial began on November 7, 1615. Under pressure, she broke down and confessed. Condemned to death, she was taken to Tyburn to be hanged. She threw money to the crowd as she was taken through the streets in a cart. The executioner was ordered to wear yellow cuffs and ruff. Not surprisingly, these went out of fashion with Anne’s death. Her brother, Eustace Norton, the king’s falconer, was allowed to take her body to be decently buried. Biography: detailed accounts of the Overbury case are Beatrice White’s Cast of Ravens and Anne Somerset's Unnatural Murder: Poison at the Court of King James; Oxford DNB entry under "Turner [née Norton], Anne." Portrait: an engraving showing Anne Turner on her way to the gallows at Tyburn.
see ELIZABETH ROTHERFIELD
see JANE HORNBY
Mary Norton was the daughter of Richard Norton of Rotherfield (d.1592) and his first wife, Rose (or Elizabeth) Wayte. She married Sir William Uvedale (1560-January 1615/6). They were the parents of four sons and five daughters, including John (d.yng), William (c.1586-1652/3), and Richard. After her husband’s death, Mary conduced manorial courts in 1616, 1620, and 1623. That her son took over in 1634 indicates she had died by then.
see PHILIPPA TRAPPES
ELIZABETH NORWICH or NORWICHE (d.1594)
Elizabeth Norwich was the daughter of Sir John Norwich and his wife Susan. Susan was a gentlewoman of the Privy Chamber to Kathryn Parr. Elizabeth was a member of Elizabeth Tudor's household before she became queen. When Elizabeth Sandes was dismissed from her service in June 1554, the Lady Elizabeth suggested that Elizabeth Norwich replace her. Elizabeth Norwich probably served Elizabeth from 1548 until Elizabeth's arrest in 1554 and again from October 1554. She continued to be part of the queen's household after Elizabeth Tudor took the throne and, as the third wife of Sir Gawen Carew (c.1503-1583/4), to whom she was married by December 1565, was the Lady Carew listed as one of Queen Elizabeth's Ladies of the Bedchamber in 1587. She was in charge of the queen's hoods. John Harington's poem to six of Princess Elizabeth's gentlewomen begins one stanza with the words "To Norwyche good and grave" and talks about her "knowledge in foresight of suche thinges yet to come." She was executrix of Carew’s will, written October 11, 1582 and proved June 30, 1585.
see ALICE WHITAKER
text ©2008-14 Kathy Lynn Emerson (all rights reserved)